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研究生:張順傑
研究生(外文):Sun-Jae Chang
論文名稱:泥水作業勞工六價鉻暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Exposure Assessment of Hexavalent Chromium to Cement Workers
指導教授:吳俊德吳俊德引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:職業安全與衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:六價鉻作業活動型態工作暴露矩陣
外文關鍵詞:hexavalent chromiumtime activity patternjob exposure matrix
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研究指出台灣地區泥水作業勞工高皮膚病盛行率,可能與水泥中六價鉻有顯著相關,探討勞工六價鉻暴露和皮膚病的關係有其重要性。本研究收集泥水作業勞工從事各項作業時,六價鉻的暴露強度(exposure intensity)、暴露時間(exposure duration)及暴露有關的作業活動型態(time activity pattern),以建立工作暴露矩陣(job exposure matrix, JEM),估計泥水作業勞工長期六價鉻暴露劑量。徵求志願參與研究的泥水業勞工,針對他們現場工作情形做詳細的紀錄及空氣區域採樣、皮膚及尿液個人採樣,以進行勞工執行各作業項目的暴露測定。以問卷及現場工作紀錄表收集各類與暴露有關的定性資料、工作史、疾病史及生活環境資料。針對暴露測定數據統計分析,估計泥水業勞工執行各項作業項目平均暴露強度,由問卷及現場工作紀錄表推估各項作業項目暴露時間及個人作業活動型態,最後建立工作暴露矩陣。由工作暴露矩陣所推估的相對強度值包含:混拌(1)、運土(2.01)、抹平(5.26)。可以發現從短期模式中知道工作時間越長,皮膚暴露濃度會稍微升高。但從長期模式中,卻看不到這個趨勢。表示長期暴露下,可能有其他未知的干擾因子需要控制掉才能發現趨勢。
The objective of this study is to establish Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) of cement workers by collecting exposure intensity, exposure duration and time activity patterns for each work task to estimate workers’ long-term hexavalent chromium exposure doses. Volunteered cerment workers were observed at their work place to estimate the exposure intensity by collecting skin, urine and air samples. Both questionnaires and field recording sheets were designed to gather qualitative exposure relevant information, work history, disease history and living environment information. Exposure measurements were used to calculate the average exposure of each work task. JEM was established by collecting workers’ exposured time and work activity patterns from the questionnaires and field recording sheets. Each worker’s exposure to hexavalent chromium was estimated by combining the Job Exposure Matrix and personal work history. The JEM in this study provided a good measurement to understand the exposure intensity of helaxvlent chromium for both short-term and long-term exposures and characterization of workers’ exposure profiles. The results of these exposure assessments provided important information on the contribution of dermal exposure of hexavalent chromium, linking cumulative exposure and skin diseases to the biomarkers of hexavalent chromium. The relative intensity value in which collected by the time activity pattern and questionnaire can be estimated to three variables including: mixing(1), transporting(2.01), and scratching(5.26). From the short-term model understood, the longer the task duration is, the dermal hexavalent chromium concentration will elevate slightly. But from the long-term model, this tendency is not likely to occur. It is possible that other unknown confounding factors are in need of control.
致謝. I
中文摘要 III
Abstract IV
目錄. V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 9
第二章 文獻探討 10
第一節 鉻的基本特性 10
第二節 水泥中六價鉻的含量 10
第三節 鉻的生理毒性 12
第四節 職業性皮膚病的簡介 12
第五節 六價鉻暴露測定與估計 13
第六節 工作暴露矩陣(Job Exposure Matrix, JEM)在研究上的應用 15
第三章 研究目的與架構 17
第一節 研究目的 17
第二節 研究架構 17
第四章 材料與方法 19
第一節 研究對象 19
第二節 採樣方法 19
第三節 樣本前處理方法 21
第四節 儀器分析條件 22
第五節 樣本分析品管品保 23
第六節 問卷訪視 25
第七節 資料描述分析 25
第八節 工作暴露矩陣(JEM)的建立 26
第九節 長期六價鉻暴露實態描述(Exposure Profile) 27
第五章 結果與討論 29
第一節 空氣樣本 29
第二節 尿液樣本 29
第三節 皮膚樣本 34
第四節 現場工作時間活動型態(Task Activity Pattern) 36
第五節 以工作暴露矩陣推估作業勞工長期六價鉻暴露 39
第六節 長期六價鉻暴露評估結果和皮膚疾病的關聯 40
第六章 結論與建議 42
第七章 參考文獻 44
附錄一 泥水作業勞工六價鉻暴露現場採樣紀錄表 49
附錄二 泥水作業勞工鉻暴露問卷 51
附錄三 泥水作業勞工工作暴露矩陣 62
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