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研究生:魏佳豪
研究生(外文):Chia-Hao Wai
論文名稱:醫院門診區病人對感染性廢棄物分類之認知研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the behavior and perception of outpatients regarding with infectious wastes.
指導教授:謝賢書謝賢書引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:職業安全與衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:醫院感染性廢棄物院內感染傳染病
外文關鍵詞:hospitalinfectious wasteCourtyard infectioninfectious disease
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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「有害事業廢棄物認定標準」(91.01.09)指出,感染性廢棄物對人體和環境可能會有著潛在的危害。「事業廢棄物處存清除處理方法及設施標準」(92.12.31)規定感染性廢棄物從產生到最終處置皆需要有妥善的安排及處理。
本研究之目的在瞭解醫院內門診區及檢驗科(抽血站)處理感染性廢棄物在實際執行是否與法規既定之標準有差異,及觀察門診病患在處理廢棄物的情況,來評估病人是否有暴露在感染性廢棄物的風險;並調查一般民眾對感染性廢棄物之認知以及民眾在醫院之經驗來瞭解政府及醫療單位對感染性廢棄物之宣導是否足夠,避免人民會因認知不足而讓感染性廢棄物有機會造成危害。
本研究之方法包括實地調查及問卷調查。實地調查部份,計23間醫院之門診區及其檢驗科(抽血站),觀察醫院對於感染性廢棄物回收或處理裝置之設置實際狀況,評估與現行法律規定之執行的程度。再利用問卷調查來瞭解民眾對感染性廢棄物之認知;另外,在10間醫院內之檢驗科實際觀察民眾在處理感染性廢棄物之行為,來判斷民眾對於感染性廢棄物的危害知覺是否足夠。
結果顯示醫院門診區皆未設置感染性廢棄物回收或處理裝置;而檢驗科(抽血站)雖多有設置感染性廢棄物回收或處理裝置,但民眾卻未將止血棉球等潛在感染性廢棄物丟棄於內。從問卷中得知,民眾對於感染性廢棄物的認知不足,且醫院內並未有相關的宣導。這些影響造成許多不當的處理方式,可能會增加民眾暴露於感染性廢棄物的風險,進而對民眾或環境造成危害。
In Taiwan, the definitions of infectious waste are described in two regulations which are “Standards for Defining Hazardous Industrial Waste” and “Methods and Facilities Standards for the Storage, Clearance and Disposal of Industrial Waste”. According to these two regulations, all concerned parties not only expose to potential hazard, but are obliged to treat infectious waste correctly during classifying, collecting, storage, and transporting.
The purposes of this study are to learn how much infectious waste disposal program in hospitals follow government’s regulations, and investigate the risk perception of infectious waste and the classification behavior among general population. In this study we used two kinds of methods, namely, field study and questionnaire survey. We observed patients’ behavior of disposing potentially infectious waste and looked into how visible and how many infectious waste collecting bins are installed in hospitals. Besides, questionnaires were designed and distributed to assess the general public’s risk perception of infectious waste in hospitals.
The field study of 23 hospitals revealed that no single infectious waste collecting bin was installed in the policlinic area in any hospital, and some were found near Laboratory Department in 16 hospitals. Among 3095 patients being observed of disposing potential infectious waste in hospital, more than 90% of them incorrectly classified and disposed infectious wastes. The result of questionnaire survey showed that incorrect risk perception on infectious waste was correlated with mis-classification and inadvertent disposal. The improper treatment of infectious waste can increase the risk likelihood of being exposed, and cause unnecessary harm to the populace or the environment.
目錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧及探討 3
2-1 何謂感染性廢棄物 3
2-1-1 各國有關感染性廢棄物之定義及分類 4
2-1-2 WHO有關感染性廢棄物之定義及分類 8
2-1-3 國內感染性廢棄物定義與分類之變遷 9
2-2 感染性廢棄物產量對醫院的影響 12
2-3 感染性廢棄物對人類及環境的影響 13
參、研究動機與目的 17
3-1 研究動機 17
3-2 研究目的 18
肆、研究方法與架構 19
4-1 實地觀察 20
4-1-1醫院設置之觀察 20
4-1-2 民眾與清潔人員行為之觀察 21
4-2 問卷設計 21
4-2-1 問卷調查內容 22
4-2-2問卷信度 22
4-2-3 分析方法 23
伍、結果與討論 24
5-1 實地觀察之結果 24
5-1-1 醫院設置之實地觀察結果 24
5-1-2 實地觀察檢驗科內民眾抽完血後行為之結果 26
5-1-3 實地觀察醫院內清楚人員之行為 28
5-1-4 民眾特殊行為 30
5-2 問卷調查結果 30
5-2-1 基本資料 30
5-2-2 問卷調查結果 31
5-2-3 進階分析 38
5-4 研究障礙 41
5-3 討論 42
陸、結論 45
柒、文獻 46
捌、附錄 50
附錄一:日本感染性廢棄物分類之細目 50
附錄二:其他各國與感染性廢棄物相關之定義與分類 52
附錄三:台灣過去對感染性廢棄物之定義 55
附錄四:前測問卷及其信度測驗 57
信度測驗 61
附錄五:問卷調查 63
附錄六:實地觀查記錄 67
各醫院之實地觀察(照片) 67
醫院檢驗科及門診區感染性垃圾桶之分佈 70
止血棉球專用回收桶上之標示及宣導 71
各醫院之實地觀察(記錄) 72
台北市及台南縣市實地觀察總和之數據 81
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