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研究生:王靖雅
研究生(外文):Jing-Ya
論文名稱:柴油車行經道路其周遭環境與居民尿液中重金屬分佈之調查
論文名稱(外文):Study of metal concentration in the environment and urine of residents near diesel-transported road
指導教授:郭崇義
指導教授(外文):Chung-Yih Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
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  • 被引用被引用:2
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本研究目的係探討砂石車排放的重金屬以及其揚塵中重金屬在附近環境中之流佈與對附近居民健康的影響,選擇砂石車運送路徑沿線之地區為暴露組,非砂石運送路徑之地區為對照組。分別採集該地區室外空氣粗細粒徑懸浮微粒(PM2.5、PM10-2.5)與街道上之塵土,分析九種重金屬(As、Pb、Cu、Mn、Fe、Ni、Al、Zn、Mo)含量,並比較此兩組樣品其重金屬含量及重金屬組成特徵之差異。另選擇暴露組及對照組鄉鎮中之住戶,分別採集其室內塵土、室內空氣,比較暴露組室內及室外重金屬組成特徵之差異,以及對照組室內與室外重金屬組成之差異。在居民影響的部份,選取46名對照組及129名暴露組居民之尿液樣本,比較兩組居民間尿液重金屬濃度之差異,並進行居民重金屬暴露量評估。
研究結果發現大氣中重金屬無論在細粒徑(PM2.5)或粗粒徑(PM10-2.5)均為暴露組濃度高於對照組,且日間重金屬濃度皆高於夜間重金屬濃度,利用豐富化因子(Enrichment Factor,EF)計算各金屬豐富化程度,發現Zn、Cu、Ni、Mo等金屬有遭受塵土以外污染源之影響,在扣除街塵之影響後再分析其豐富化情形發現,Zn、Cu、Mo三種元素仍有豐富化之情形,推測這些元素應受到來自於運砂車排氣之影響。
居家室內空氣其日間與夜間重金屬濃度,皆是暴露組高於對照組,進一步計算室內空氣豐富化之情形。在Zn、Cu、Ni、Mo皆有明顯豐富化之情形,而扣除街塵之影響後,Zn、Cu、Mo仍有明顯之豐富化情形,其來源應是運砂車排氣,而Al元素在EF河床、EF街塵之豐富化情形差不多,並未因扣除街塵之影響而下降,顯示河床與街塵對於室內空氣Al元素有相同之貢獻。
室內塵土中之負荷量(mg/m2)為暴露組高於對照組1.85倍,且達統計上顯著差異(P<0.05),室內塵土中之金屬濃度(mg/m2),皆是暴露組其濃度高於對照組之現象,除Mn、Mo兩元素,其餘六種元素在兩組間均達統計上顯著差異(P<0.05)。探討暴露組住戶距離運砂車行駛道路之距離進行室內塵土中金屬濃度之比較,近程(<20m)之金屬濃度略高於遠程(>20m),其中僅Mo元素在兩組間達統計上顯著差異(P<0.001)。
尿液中重金屬濃度為暴露組高於對照組,其中Fe、Pb、Cu、Ni、Mo五種金屬達統計上顯著差異(P<0.05)。探討暴露組住戶距離運砂車行駛道路之距離進行尿液中金屬濃度之比較,近程(<20m)之金屬濃度皆高於遠程(>20m),其中Mo達統計上顯著差異(P<0.001)。進一步計算居民暴露量評估,在九種元素之暴露量均為暴露組居民高於對照組居民,與尿液之趨勢相同,顯示其暴露組居民可能受到運砂車行駛所影響,致使尿液中金屬濃度有高於對照組居民之情形。

目錄
第一章 前言與動機 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 大氣中之重金屬 4
2.2 塵土中重金屬之分佈 9
2.3 柴油車中重金屬之特性 10
2.4 重金屬對人體之危害 13
2.5重金屬暴露與尿液含量 16
第三章 實驗設備與方法 19
3.1 研究架構 19
3.2 樣品採集 20
3.3 樣品前處理 22
3.4 儀器設備 24
3.5 試劑 24
3.6 統計軟體、方法與繪圖 26
3.7 居民暴露量評估 27
3.8 品保品管 27
第四章 結果與討論 29
4.1 大氣懸浮微粒之質量濃度 29
4.2 大氣懸浮微粒中之重金屬含量 31
4.3 大氣懸浮微粒中之重金屬之日夜比例 36
4.4 大氣懸浮微粒重金屬之豐富化因子(Enrichment Factor,EF) 37
4.5 大氣中重金屬在粗細粒徑之相關矩陣 44
4.6 大氣懸浮微粒重金屬之主成分分析 46
4.7 室內空氣中重金屬含量 49
4.8 室內空氣重金屬之豐富化因子(Enrichment Factor,EF) 51
4.9 室內空氣中重金屬之主成分分析 55
4.10室內塵土中重金屬含量 57
4.11 塵土中重金屬之趨勢 59
4.12 室內塵土之負荷量與重金屬濃度之相關矩陣 61
4.13 基本人口學資料 63
4.14 居民尿液中重金屬之含量 65
4.15 尿液中重金屬濃度與環境因子之暴露評估 71
第五章 研究限制 80
第六章 結論 81
6.1 大氣懸浮微粒 81
5.2 室內空氣 81
6.3 室內塵土 82
6.4 尿液中重金屬 82
6.5 暴露量評估 83
參考文獻 84

表目錄
表2.1-1 大氣PM10中重金屬濃度(ng/m3)相關文獻彙整 7
表2.1-2 大氣PM2.5中重金屬濃度(ng/m3)相關文獻彙整 8
表2.3-1柴油引擎與其它三種不同排放源之年排放量(kg/year)比較 12
表2.3-2柴油車行經路線空氣中粗細粒徑與日夜之重金屬濃度(ng/m3)比較 12
表3.8-1 尿液標準品檢測濃度 28
表4.1-1 對照組與暴露組在採樣期間大氣中日夜質量濃度之比較(µg/m3) 30
表4.2-1. 大氣中重金屬在日間粗細粒徑之濃度(ng/m3) 34
表4.2-2 大氣中重金屬在夜間粗細粒徑之濃度(ng/m3) 34
表4.2-3 大氣PM10中重金屬濃度(ng/m3)與國內外文獻進行比較 35
表4.5-1 暴露組粗細粒徑金屬元素之相關矩陣 45
表4.6-1 大氣中重金屬在暴露組日間細粒徑主成分分析之結果 48
表4.6-2 大氣中重金屬在暴露組日間粗粒徑主成分分析之結果 48
表4.7-1 室內空氣中重金屬在日間PM10之濃度(ng/m3) 50
表4.7-2 室內空氣中重金屬在夜間PM10之濃度(ng/m3) 50
表4.8-1 室內外空氣PM10中各金屬之豐富化因子比較 54
表4.9-1暴露組室內空氣PM10中重金屬主成分分析之結果 56
表4.10-1 對照組與暴露組在室內塵土之重金屬濃度(mg/m2) 58
表4-10.2 暴露組依距離區分成兩組其室內塵土中重金屬濃度(mg/m2) 58
表4.11-1室內塵土/街塵之比率 60
表4.12-1 暴露組居民室內塵土負荷量(mg/m2)與其重金屬濃度(mg/m2)之相關矩陣 62
表4.13-1對照組與暴露組之基本人口學資料 64
表4.14-1 對照組與暴露組尿液中重金屬濃度(μg/g creatinine) 70
表4.14-2 暴露組居民依距離運砂車主要行駛路線區分為兩組其尿液中重金屬濃度(μg/g creatinine)比較 70
表4.15-1 94年南投疏濬工程居民食物中重金屬濃度(ng/g) 74

圖目錄
圖3.1-1 研究架構 19
圖3.2-1 採樣地理分布圖 21
圖3.3-1 石英濾紙中重金屬前處理流程 22
圖3.3-2 塵土中重金屬前處理流程 23
圖3.3-3 尿液中重金屬前處理流程 23
圖4.3-1 暴露組粗細粒徑中重金屬濃度日夜之比值 36
圖4.4-1 對照組地區大氣PM10與街塵中重金屬之相關圖 41
圖4.4-2 暴露組地區大氣PM10與街塵中重金屬之相關圖 42
圖4.4-3暴露組日間大氣PM2.5豐富化因子 43
圖4.4-4暴露組日間大氣PM10-2.5豐富化因子 43
圖4.8-2 暴露組日間室內空氣PM10以不同分母計算豐富化因子 54
圖4.11-1 室內塵土、街塵、河床之金屬濃度趨勢圖 60
圖4.15-1 對照組與暴露組Fe總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/g creatinine)之趨勢圖 75
圖4.15-2 對照組與暴露組Al總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 75
圖4.15-3 對照組與暴露組Mn總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 76
圖4.15-4 對照組與暴露組Pb總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/g creatinine)之趨勢圖 76
圖3.1-1 研究架構 19
圖3.2-1 採樣地理分布圖 21
圖3.3-1 石英濾紙中重金屬前處理流程 22
圖3.3-2 塵土中重金屬前處理流程 23
圖3.3-3 尿液中重金屬前處理流程 23
圖4.3-1 暴露組粗細粒徑中重金屬濃度日夜之比值 36
圖4.4-1 對照組地區大氣PM10與街塵中重金屬之相關圖 41
圖4.4-2 暴露組地區大氣PM10與街塵中重金屬之相關圖 42
圖4.4-3暴露組日間大氣PM2.5豐富化因子 43
圖4.4-4暴露組日間大氣PM10-2.5豐富化因子 43
圖4.8-2 暴露組日間室內空氣PM10以不同分母計算豐富化因子 54
圖4.11-1 室內塵土、街塵、河床之金屬濃度趨勢圖 60
圖4.15-1 對照組與暴露組Fe總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/g creatinine)之趨勢圖 75
圖4.15-2 對照組與暴露組Al總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 75
圖4.15-3 對照組與暴露組Mn總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 76
圖4.15-4 對照組與暴露組Pb總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/g creatinine)之趨勢圖 76
圖4.15-5 對照組與暴露組Zn總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 77
圖4.15-6 對照組與暴露組Cu總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 77
圖4.15-7 對照組與暴露組Ni總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 78
圖4.15-8 對照組與暴露組Mo總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/gcreatinine)之趨勢圖 78
圖4.15-9 對照組與暴露組As總暴露量(μg/day)與尿液濃度(μg/g creatinine)之趨勢圖 79

附錄目錄
附錄 1 各金屬元素回收率分析之結果(%) 95
附錄 2 各金屬元素重複分析相對誤差百分比(%)之結果 96




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