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研究生:楊慧君
研究生(外文):Hui-Chun
論文名稱:亞麻籽油對於高油脂/膽固醇飲食下倉鼠血脂的影響效果
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Flaxseed Oil on Serum Lipids in Hamsters Fed High-Fat/Cholesterol Diets
指導教授:陳億乘
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:營養學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
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心血管疾病是國人十大死因第三位,不飽和脂肪酸中的ω-3 PUFA被認為可以降低心血管疾病的發生,α-次亞麻油酸(Alpha-linolenic acid)簡稱ALA (18:3),為EPA (20:5)與DHA (22:6)的先驅物,是人體所必需的不飽和脂肪酸,不能自身合成只能從自然界攝取,而亞麻籽油(flaxseed oil, FX)為自然界植物油中ALA含量最高者。本研究欲探討FX對血脂的影響,因此以倉鼠為實驗動物模式,32隻5週齡的Syrian hamsters先飼養一週習慣環境後,再隨機被分配成四組:1) Control: chow diet (5%脂肪/ 0%膽固醇);2) CO (coconut): 92.9% chow diet +7%椰子油/0.1%膽固醇;3) BU (butter): 92.9% chow diet +7%奶油/0.1%膽固醇;4) FX (flaxseed): 92.9% chow diet +7% FX/0.1%膽固醇。本研究發現在高油脂/膽固醇飲食下,FX對倉鼠血液中的總膽固醇及三酸甘油酯有降低的現象(P<0.05),並改善了倉鼠血液中HDL-C/TC之值(P<0.05),而血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(HDL-C)方面,高油脂/膽固醇飲食的組別則無顯著差異(P>0.05)。而肝臟脂肪方面,高油脂/膽固醇飲食中添加FX具有降低肝臟中膽固醇及三酸甘油酯的作用(P<0.05);另外FX則會增加糞便中排泄之膽固醇及三酸甘油酯(P<0.05)。在膽固醇代謝相關基因表現量上,高油脂/膽固醇的組別其肝臟HMG-CoA reductase mRNA表現量皆顯著地高於Control組(P<0.05);LDL-receptor mRNA表現量皆較Control低,其中分別只有CO、BU組與Control組有統計上的差異(P<0.05);各組間CYP7A1 mRNA表現量在統計上並無顯著差異(P<0.05)。在肝損傷指數方面,FX組之GOT及GPT值皆較CO與BU組顯著降低(P<0.05)。在肝臟氧化壓力方面,FX組之GSH值皆較CO與BU組顯著升高(P<0.05),各組之MDA值則無顯著差異,但是在餵食高油脂/膽固醇飼料之倉鼠中,其中CO及BU組之MDA又高於FX組。
本研究結果指出亞麻籽油在高油脂/膽固醇飲食習慣下具有改善血脂情形與減緩因高油脂膽固醇引起的肝損傷與氧化壓力。


The cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one leading cause of human death in the United States since 1990. The similarity is observed in Taiwan since 1980. As we know, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) can reduce a risk of CVD. ω-3 FAs include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Sources of EPA and DHA are mainly from marine organisms while ALA is mainly obtained in vegetable oils, especially flaxseed oil (FX). Although ALA, EPA, and DHA are belonging to an ω-3 FA family, the cardioprotective effects of ALA are controversial.
FX contains 53.3% ALA and 12.7% linoleic acid. After an acclimation for one week, 32 Syrian hamsters (5-wk age) with two hamsters per cage were divided randomly into four different dietary groups: 1) Control: chow diet (5% fat/0% cholesterol); 2) CO: 92.9% (w/w) chow diet with 7% (w/w) coconut oil/ 0.1% (w/w) cholesterol; 3) BU: 92.9% (w/w) chow diet with 7% (w/w) butter/ 0.1% (w/w) cholesterol; 4) FX: 92.9% (w/w) chow diet with 7% (w/w) FX/ 0.1 % (w/w) cholesterol. Six weeks later, in high-fat/cholesterol dietary groups, FX showed a hypolipidemic effect (P<0.05), and also improved (P<0.05) HDL-C/TC. Lower (P<0.05) hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were measured in FX groups than CO and BU groups; whereas, higher (P<0.05) fecal triglyceride and cholesterol contents were observed in FX groups. When hamsters were fed high-fat/cholesterol diets, HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression was upregulated (P<0.05) but LDL-receptor mRNA expression of CO and BU groups was downregulated compared to that of control groups. Meanwhile, no (P>0.05) difference on CYP7A1 mRNA expression was recorded among all groups. To concern about liver damage, the lower (P<0.05) serum GOT and GPT values were measured in FX groups compared to other two high-fat/cholesterol dietary groups. The hepatic glutathione (GSH) content in FX groups was higher than those in other two high-fat/cholesterol dietary groups. Although no (P>0.05) differences on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected among all groups, there was a trendeny toward higher MDA levels of CO and BU groups than that of FX groups.
We concluded that hypocholesterolemic effect of flaxseed oil might result from an increase of LDL receptor mRNA expression and more fecal lipid excretion. Meanwhile, flaxseed oil also alleviated liver damage induced by high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit.


目錄..................................................................... I

圖表次…………………………………………………………………... III


縮寫表…………………………………………………………………... IV


中文摘要……………………………………………………………… 1

英文摘要……………………………………………………………… 2

第一章、 前言........................................................................................... 4

第二章、 文獻回顧................................................................................... 7
2-1 心血管疾病.............................................................................. 7
2-2 脂肪酸與心血管疾病的關係.................................................. 8
2-2-1 脂肪酸的介紹.................................................................. 8
2-2-2 飽和脂肪酸...................................................................... 9
2-2-3 不飽和脂肪酸.................................................................. 9
2-3膽固醇與三酸甘油酯代謝........................................................ 11
2-3-1 膽固醇(Cholesterol)......................................................... 11
2-3-2 三酸甘油酯(Triglyceride) .............................................. 16
2-3-3 脂蛋白(Lipoprotein) ....................................................... 18
2-4脂肪肝(fatty liver) .................................................................... 20
2-4-1 肝臟.................................................................................. 20
2-4-2 肝臟的主要生理功能...................................................... 20
2-4-3 肝臟功能的檢查.............................................................. 22
2-4-4 脂肪肝.............................................................................. 23
2-5亞麻籽油(Flaxseed oil) ............................................................. 25

第三章、 實驗材料與方法....................................................................... 31
3-1研究大綱.................................................................................... 31
3-2實驗材料.................................................................................... 32
3-3實驗材料與方法........................................................................ 34
3-3-1 實驗材料.......................................................................... 34
3-3-2 動物飼養與飼料配方...................................................... 34
3-3-3 樣本收集.......................................................................... 35
3-3-4 血清脂質分析.................................................................. 35
3-3-5 肝臟脂質分析.................................................................. 37
3-3-6 糞便脂質分析.................................................................. 38
3-3-7 Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) ...................................................................................
38
3-3-8 血液肝臟破損指數Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT)和Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT)分析…...
40
3-3-9. 肝臟中GSH (glutathione)及MDA (malondialdehyde)含量之測定................................................................................
3-4統計分析.................................................................................... 42

第四章、 實驗結果................................................................................... 43
4-1試驗動物體重、攝食量、飲水量的變化.................................... 43
4-2 試驗動物血清中三酸甘油酯(serum triglyceride, TG)、膽固醇(serum cholesterol, TC)、高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C)、膽固醇組成比例(HDL-C/TC)的變化.........................................................................


43
4-3 試驗動物腹腔脂肪墊(abdominal fat pad)、肝臟(liver)、肝臟脂肪含量(hepatic fat content)的變化.........................................
44
4-4試驗動物肝臟/糞便中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯的變化................ 44
4-5 試驗動物體內膽固醇生合成調節基因表現量(HMG-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1)的變化............................................................................

45
4-6 試驗動物血清中肝臟受損指數(GOT and GPT)的變化........ 45
4-7 試驗動物肝臟氧化壓力(GSH, MDA)的變化........................ 46

第五章、 討論........................................................................................... 47
5-1 亞麻籽油對於倉鼠體重、攝食量及飲水量的影響................ 48
5-2亞麻籽油對於倉鼠血脂的影響................................................ 49
5-3亞麻籽油對於肝臟脂肪及糞便脂肪的影響............................ 51
5-4亞麻籽油對於膽固醇代謝路徑酵素表現的影響................... 52
5-5亞麻籽油對於肝臟損傷程度(GOT、GPT)的影響................... 54
5-6亞麻籽油對於肝臟氧化壓力指數(GSH及MDA)的影響....... 55

第六章、 結論........................................................................................... 57
第七章、 結果圖表................................................................................... 58
第八章、 參考文獻................................................................................... 76


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