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研究生:洪豪隆
研究生(外文):Hao-Long Hong
論文名稱:躺姿電腦工作站的設計與評估
論文名稱(外文):The design and evaluation of supine computer workstation
指導教授:吳欣潔吳欣潔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Chieh Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:肌電圖身體壓力分布滑鼠操作坐姿躺姿電腦工作站
外文關鍵詞:electromyographycomputer workstationlyingmouse operationsittingbody pressure distribution
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
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  • 下載下載:27
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現今的電腦作業大多是採取靜態坐姿方式進行,坐久了很容易產生肌肉骨骼不適,所以本研究致力於開發一躺姿電腦工作站,讓人們可以躺在床上操作電腦,以期達到舒適、方便,減低各部位肌肉骨骼不適。
本研究先以AutoCAD和JACK軟體去繪製躺姿電腦工作站設計圖,電腦模擬修改之後再製作原型,後續實驗徵求健康男性11位,以兩種姿勢(坐姿和躺姿),以及三種手肘角度(90°、120°、150°)作測試。每位受測者執行相同的滑鼠作業和閱讀作業。作業過程中量測受測者的作業績效、主觀疲勞、肌肉活動電位和身體壓力分佈資料,藉此了解躺姿電腦工作站是否優於坐姿電腦工作站。
實驗結果發現躺姿在作業績效、肌肉活動電位和主觀疲勞上比坐姿差,但在身體壓力分佈則是躺姿較好、較能平均分配,手肘角度則是以90°效果最好。本研究設計的躺姿電腦工作站可以讓下肢不方便或高齡者來使用,也可以讓正常人做娛樂、聊天或打字用途。雖然躺姿操作電腦的績效不如坐姿,但是卻也提供另一種可能的解決方案,讓無法坐著的人得以躺下來使用電腦。本研究也提供許多寶貴的測試資料,深入比較躺姿與坐姿操作滑鼠的績效與手臂肌肉活動電位,和身體接觸壓力分布,這些結果都可以作為未來改善躺姿電腦工作站的重要參考依據。
Most computer operations are static and sitting positions nowadays. After prolonged sitting, muscularskeletal discomfort easily occurs. Therefore, this study was dedicated to developing a supine computer workstation which allows people to use computer on the bed. It is expected to reach comfort, convenience, and reduction in muscularskeletal discomfort in each part.
The AutoCAD and JACK softwares were used to draw the design diagram of the supine computer workstation at first. After computer simulation and modification, a prototype was produced. The follow-up experiment recruited eleven healthy men to test. Two postures (sitting and lying) and three elbow angles (90°,120°,and 150°)were tested conditions. Each subject operated the same mouse tasks and reading task. The subject’s performances, subjective fatigue, electromyography, and body pressure distribution data were measured during the tests. By these tests, we can understand whether the supine computer workstation is superior to the sitting computer workstation.
The experimental results indicated that the supine computer workstation is inferior to the sitting computer workstation in performances, subjective fatigue, and muscle activity potential. But the body pressure distribution data showed that the supine workstation had more unified contact pressure than the sitting one. The elbow angle of 90° resulted in the best effect for all. The designed supine computer workstation can facilitate lower extremity disadvantaged population and elderly people to use computers. It also can let normal people use for entertainments, talking, and typing. Although the supine computer workstation is worse than sitting one in performance, it provides other possible solution for people who are unable to sit to lie down using computers. This research provides much precious testing information regarding to comparisons between lying and sitting in performances, subjective fatigue, arm’s electromyography, and body contact pressure distribution in depth. These results can be important references to improve the supine computer workstation in the future.
目 錄
摘 要I
Abstract II
致 謝IV
目 錄V
表目錄IX
圖目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 以坐姿使用電腦的問題 5
第二節 電腦工作站的設計 7
第三節 電腦作業之負荷測量 10
3.1 肌電訊號 10
3.1.1 肌電訊號的強度(amplitude)與頻率分佈 11
3.1.2 肌電訊號應用在工作評估 12
3.2 身體接觸壓力 13
3.2.1 身體壓力案例探討 14
3.3 肌肉骨骼傷害問卷調查 15
第四節 電腦作業之績效評估 16
第三章 研究方法與步驟 18
第一節 躺姿電腦工作站設計與開發 18
1.1 使用Autocad軟體設計工作站尺寸大小 18
1.2 運用JACK軟體模擬人機操作情況 22
1.3 開發工作站實體模型 24
第二節 實驗測試 25
2.1 受測者 25
2.2 實驗設備 26
2.3 實驗設計 34
2.4 電腦作業測試內容 38
2.5 實驗流程 41
2.6 資料統計與分析 44
第四章 實驗結果 45
第一節 滑鼠操作績效評估 45
1.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 45
1.2 多變量變異數分析 48
1.3 相關性分析 49
第二節 閱讀績效 50
1.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 50
1.2 多變量變異數分析 52
第三節 肌肉活動電位 52
3.1 連續按鍵肌肉活動電位 52
3.1.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 52
3.1.2 多變量變異數分析 54
3.1.3 相關性分析 55
3.2 移動點選肌肉活動電位 56
3.2.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 56
3.2.2 多變量變異數分析 58
3.2.3 相關性分析 59
3.3 拖曳施放肌肉活動電位 59
3.3.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 59
3.3.2 多變量變異數分析 61
3.3.3 相關性分析 62
3.4 電流急急棒肌肉活動變化 63
3.4.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 63
3.4.2 多變量變異數分析 65
3.4.3 相關性分析 66
3.5 閱讀績效肌肉活動變化 67
3.5.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 67
3.5.2 多變量變異數分析 69
3.5.3 相關性分析 70
第四節 身體壓力分布 71
4.1 總壓力分布 71
4.1.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 71
4.1.2 多變量變異數分析 73
4.2 臀部壓力分布 74
4.2.1 敘述性統計 74
4.2.2 多變量變異數分析 77
4.2.3 相關性分析 78
4.3 背部壓力分佈 79
4.3.1 敘述性統計和單變量變異數分析 79
4.3.2 多變量變異數分析 83
4.3.3 相關性分析 83
第五節 主觀偏好和不適程度問卷 84
5.1 自覺不舒適症狀問卷 84
5.2 主觀偏好問卷 89
第五章 討論 92
第一節 滑鼠操作績效 92
第二節 閱讀績效 93
第三節 肌肉活動電位 94
第四節 身體壓力分佈 97
第五節 主觀偏好和不適程度問卷 98
第六節 研究的限制 99
第七節 研究結果的應用 100
第六章 結論與建議 102
第一節 結論 102
第二節 建議 103
參考文獻 104
附錄一 受測者同意書 112
附錄二 個人基本資料 114
附錄三 滑鼠操作績效 115
附錄四 主觀不適問卷 116


表目錄
表2-1 靜態收縮可能引起的局部疼痛 6
表3-1 男性身高分佈(Unit:mm) 19
表3-2 女性身高分佈(Unit:mm) 19
表3-3 男性腹厚分佈(Unit:mm) 20
表3-4 女性腹厚分佈(Unit:mm) 20
表4-1 滑鼠操作績效測試項目的平均值、標準差 45
表4-2 「滑鼠操作績效」單變量變異數分析彙整 46
表4-3 「電流急急棒」Post Hoc-Turkey檢定手肘角度 46
表4-4 「滑鼠操作績效」多變量分析 48
表4-5 「滑鼠操作績效」相關性分析 49
表4-6 「閱讀績效」測試項目的平均值、標準差 50
表4-7 「閱讀績效」單變量變異數分析彙整 50
表4-8 「閱讀績效」Post Hoc-Turkey檢定手肘角度 51
表4-9 「閱讀績效」多變量分析 52
表4-10 「連續按鍵」四條肌肉%MVC的平均值、標準差 53
表4-11 「連續按鍵」-肌肉活動電位單變量變異數分析彙整 53
表4-12 「連續按鍵」肌肉活動之多變量分析自變項檢定分析表 55
表4-13 「連續按鍵」肌肉活動四條肌肉電位相關性分析 55
表4-14 「移動點選」四條肌肉%MVC的平均值、標準差 56
表4-15 「移動點選」-肌肉活動電位單變量變異數分析彙整 57
表4-16 「移動點選」肌肉活動之多變量分析自變項檢定分析表 58
表4-17 「移動點選」肌肉活動四條肌肉電位相關性分析 59
表4-18 「拖曳施放」四條肌肉%MVC的平均值、標準差 60
表4-19 「拖曳施放」-肌肉活動電位單變量變異數分析彙整 60
表4-20 「拖曳施放」肌肉活動之多變量分析自變項檢定分析表 62
表4-21 「拖曳施放」肌肉活動四條肌肉電位相關性分析 62
表4-22 「電流急急棒」四條肌肉%MVC的平均值、標準差 63
表4-23 「電流急急棒」-肌肉活動電位單變量變異數分析彙整 64
表4-24 「電流急急棒」肌肉活動之多變量分析自變項檢定分析表 65
表4-25 「電流急急棒」肌肉活動電位相關性分析 66
表4-26 「閱讀績效」四條肌肉%MVC的平均值、標準差 67
表4-27 「閱讀績效」-肌肉活動電位單變量變異數分析彙整 68
表4-28 「閱讀績效」肌肉活動之多變量分析自變項檢定分析表 69
表4-29 「閱讀績效」肌肉活動四條肌肉電位相關性分析 70
表4-30 總壓力分布百分比的平均值、標準差 72
表4-31 總壓力分布單變量變異數分析彙整 72
表4-32 總壓力分布之多變量分析 74
表4-33 臀部壓力分佈的平均值、標準差 75
表4-34 臀部壓力分佈單變量變異數分析彙整 76
表4-35 臀部六個區域壓力分佈之多變量分析 78
表4-36 「臀部壓力分佈S1-S6」相關性分析 78
表4-37 背部壓力分佈的平均值、標準差 80
表4-38 背部壓力分佈單變量變異數分析彙整 81
表4-39 背部六個區域壓力分佈之多變量分析 83
表4-40 「背部壓力分佈B1-B6」相關性分析 83
表4-41 自覺不舒適問卷之數字所代表的不適程度 84
表4-42 自覺不舒適問卷調查結果(平均值±標準差) (n=11) 85
表4-43 身體姿勢自覺不舒適問卷調查結果(平均值±標準差) (n=11) 85
表4-44 「自覺不舒適問卷」單變量變異數分析彙整 86
表4-45 「自覺不舒適症狀」多變量分析 88
表4-46 「工作站和手肘角度喜好程度」平均值、標準差 89
表4-47 「工作站和手肘角度喜好程度」變異數之依變項檢定分析表 90
表4-49 「主觀偏好問卷」多變量分析 91


圖目錄
圖1-1 4種不同姿勢對腰椎椎間盤的影響 2
圖1-2 研究架構 4
圖2-1 工作站研究流程圖 8
圖3-1 工作站Autocad上視圖和前視圖 21
圖3-2 工作站Autocad側視圖和3D視圖 21
圖3-3 JACK模擬試圖(1)和(2) 23
圖3-4 JACK模擬試圖 23
圖3-5 自行製作實體模型(1)和(2) 24
圖3-6 原型工作站(1)和(2) 25
圖3-7 坐姿電腦工作站(1)和(2) 26
圖3-8 躺姿電腦工作站(1)和(2) 26
圖3-9 電腦設備 27
圖3-10 EMG量測儀器 28
圖3-11 伸腕肌量測法 30
圖3-12 肱二頭肌量測法 30
圖3-13 三角肌量測法 31
圖3-14 左右斜方肌量測法 31
圖3-15 BPMS儀器(1)設備和(2)軟體 32
圖3-16 12區域部位圖 32
圖3-17 (1)碼表;(2)量角器 33
圖3-18 數位相機 33
圖3-19 (a)坐姿電腦工作站;(b)躺姿電腦工作 34
圖3-20 坐姿手肘角度:(a)90°;(b)120°;(c)150° 35
圖3-21 躺姿手肘角度:(d)90°;(e)120°;(f)150° 35
圖3-22 「連續按鍵」測試項目示意圖 38
圖3-23 「移動點選」測試項目示意圖 39
圖3-24 「拖曳施放」測試項目示意圖 40
圖3-25 「電流急急棒」測試項目示意圖(1);(2);(3) 40
圖3-26 「閱讀績效」測試項目示意圖 41
圖3-27 坐姿實驗情況(1);(2) 42
圖3-28 躺姿實驗情況(1);(2) 42
圖3-29 實驗流程 43
圖4-1 Seat pan和Seat back12區域部位圖 71
圖4-2 坐姿臀部和背部身體壓力分布百分比 73
圖4-3 躺姿臀部和背部身體壓力分布百分比 73
圖4-4 臀部區域部位圖 74
圖4-5 坐姿在臀部壓力分布 77
圖4-6 躺姿在臀部壓力分布 77
圖4-7 背部區域部位圖 79
圖4-8 坐姿在背部壓力分布 82
圖4-9 躺姿在背部壓力分布 82
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