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研究生:王文龍
研究生(外文):Wen-Lung Wang
論文名稱:粉斑螟蛾(CadracautellaWalker)人工飼育技術與其性費洛蒙配方之研發
論文名稱(外文):Artificial Rearing Techniques of Almond moth,Cadra cautella Walker and its Sex Pheromone Formulations
指導教授:王順成
指導教授(外文):Shun-Cheng Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:性費洛蒙人工飼料粉斑螟蛾
外文關鍵詞:artificial dietsex pheromoneAlmond moth(Cadra cautella Walker)
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摘 要
  在28±1℃、70±5% RH及12L:12D光週期之定溫箱中,分別以糙米、薏仁及蘇氏人工飼料飼育粉斑螟蛾(Cadra cautella Walker ),比較其在不同食物中之發育與繁殖情形。結果顯示粉斑螟蛾在蘇氏人工飼料之發育與繁殖優於以糙米及薏仁飼育者。粉斑螟蛾在糙米、薏仁及蘇氏人工飼料三種食物中其卵期分別為4.6、4.2、及4.1日,幼蟲期分別為31.4、24.8、及15.8日,雌蛹期分別為5.8、6.8、及6.1日,雄蛹期分別為7、6.5、及7日,成蟲壽命分別為5.4、6.6、及5.7日,產卵數分別為85.6、119.7、及145.1 eggs/♀及孵化率分別為77.6、76.8、及93.4 %。以三種食物飼育之粉斑螟蛾雌、雄蛹之大小及重量,以蘇氏人工飼料飼育者均顯著高於以糙米及薏仁飼育者,其雌、雄蛹大小及重量分別為7.4 × 2.0 mm及15.0 mg、6.7 × 1.7 mm及10.8 mg。經環境指數(Environmental index)評估,粉斑螟蛾以糙米、薏仁及蘇氏人工飼料三種食物飼育之環境指數分別為6.3、8.5、及13.1,顯示蘇氏人工飼料較適合粉斑螟蛾之發育與繁殖。以蘇氏人工飼料比較粉斑螟蛾不同飼育密度20、30、40、60 及120 eggs/60g diet之發育與繁殖情形,結果顯示以飼養密度40 eggs/60g diet較適合粉斑螟蛾之發育與繁殖及具經濟性。據文獻報導粉斑螟蛾之性費洛蒙組成分有兩種成分I:乙酸(Z,E)-9,12-十四雙烯-1-基酯 ((Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate, Z9E12-14:Ac)、II:乙酸(Z)-9-十四烯-1-基酯((Z)-9-tetradcen-1-yl acetate, Z9-14:Ac),其比例I/II介於1.8/1至7.5/1之間。本試驗以六角型轉盤及風洞檢測I/II= 100/0、0/100、1.8/1、2/1、2.2/1、3.6/1、4.9/1、7.5/1、8/1、10/1、12/1及15/1等12種不同比例配方,對粉斑螟蛾之誘蟲活性,結果顯示以I/II= 12/1對粉斑螟蛾具較佳之誘引效果。比較聚氯乙烯塑膠微管及白色橡皮帽等兩種不同載體配方對粉斑螟蛾之誘引性,以白色橡皮帽者較佳,其誘蟲百分率為61.9 %,顯著高於聚氯乙烯塑膠微管者36.9 %。性費洛蒙誘餌不同劑量配方對粉斑螟蛾之誘引性,於劑量100、500、1000、2000、及4000之低劑量試驗中,以4000 μg劑量處理誘蟲百分率顯著為高(30.3 %);其次為1000及2000 μg劑量處理者,誘蟲百分率分別為23.8及22.2%。於劑量1、2、4、8、及16 mg之高劑量試驗時,顯示其間之誘蟲百分率無顯著差異,其誘蟲百分率介於18.7 ~ 22.2 %。性費洛蒙裝填於聚氯乙烯塑膠微管的持效性可達4週,白色橡皮帽的持效性可達16週。綜合以上結果粉斑螟蛾之性費洛蒙誘餌以I/II= 12/1,1 mg裝填於白色橡皮帽者較具誘引有效及經濟性。
Abstract
Development and fecundity of the almond moth, Cadra cautella Walker, reared on brown rice, pearl barley and Sue’s artificial diet were conducted at 28±1 °C and 70±5 % RH with a 12L: 12D photoperiod. The results showed that the almond moth reared on Sue’s artificial diet performed better development and fecundity than those reared on brown rice and pearl barley. The development of the almond moth reared on brown rice, pearl barley and Sue’s artificial diet were as follows: egg stage: 4.6, 4.2, and 4.1 days; larval stage: 31.4, 24.8, and 15.8 days; the female pupal stage: 5.8, 6.8, and 6.1 days; the male pupal stage: 7, 6.5, and 6.1 days, and the adult longevity: 5.4, 6.6, and 5.7 days, respectively. The fecundity and hatching rate of the almond moth reared on brown rice, pearl barley and Sue’s artificial diet were 85.6, 119.7, and 145.1 eggs/female, and hatching rate were 77.6, 76.8, and 93.4%, respectively. The size and weight of female and male pupae of the almond moths reared on Sue’s artificial diet were 7.4 × 2.0 mm and 15 mg; 6.7 × 1.7 mm and 10.8 mg, respectively. Based on the environmental index for rearing the almond moth on brown rice, peal barley and sue’s artificial diet, the artificial diet (13.1) was more suitable for rearing the almond moths. Development and fecundity of the almond moth, rearing on different densities of 20, 30, 40,60, 120 eggs/ 60g diet in the Sue’s artificial diet showed that the rearing density 40 eggs/60g diet was more suitable for mass rearing the almond moth. According to the reports, sex pheromone components of the almond moth were I: (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien- 1-yl acetate (Z9E12-14:Ac) and II: (Z)-9-tetradcen-1-yl acetate(Z9-14:Ac). The proportions of I/II were between 1.8/1 to 7.5/1. In order to improve the attractiveness of the sex pheromone lure of the almond moth, twelve formulas as follows: I/II = 100/0, 0/100, 1.8/1, 2/1, 2.2/1, 3.6/1, 4.9/1, 7.5/1, 8/1, 10/1, 12/1 and 15/1, were compared with the turn table and the wind tunnel bioassay. The results showed that attractiveness of the formulation of Z9E12-14:Ac / Z9-14:Ac = 12/1 in a white septum to the almond moth was more attractive than those of the polyvinylchloride microtube. Percentage of the total moth catch with the white rubber septum (61.9%),was significantly higher than that of the polyvinylchloride microtube (36.9%). Attractiveness of the sex pheromone lures with different dosages to the almond moth showed that percentage of total male trapped with lure dosage 4000 µg (30.3%), was the highst, and significantly higer than the lure dosage of 1000 µg (23.8%) and 2000 µg ( 22.2%) in low dosage tests. Attractiveness to the almond moth were no difference within the lure dosages of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg, the percentages of the total male trapped were 18.7 - 22.2% in high dosage tests. The attractive period of the PVC microtube lure can last 4 weeks in the field, while the rubber septa lure was longer, 16 weeks. It is concluded that the formulation of the sex pheromone lure of the almond moth possessing economic and attractive in Taiwan was I/II= 12/1, with 1 mg in a rubber septum.
總目錄
摘 要 I
Abstract III
誌 謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1分類地位、外部形態及為害作物種類 3
2-2粉斑螟蛾之飼育研究 5
2-3粉斑螟蛾之羽化及生殖行為 7
2-4粉斑螟蛾之防治方法 8
2-5昆蟲性費洛蒙之生物檢定方法 8
2-6粉斑螟蛾性費洛蒙之研究 11
第三章 試驗材料與方法 15
3-1粉斑螟蛾之飼育研究 15
3-2粉斑螟蛾之生殖行為觀察 16
3-3粉斑螟蛾性費洛蒙誘餌之研發 16
第四章 結果與討論 22
4-1粉斑螟蛾之飼育研究 22
4-2粉斑螟蛾之生殖行為觀察 36
4-3 粉斑螟蛾性費洛蒙誘餌之研發 38
第五章 結論與建議 53
5-1 結論 53
5-2 建議 54
第六章 參考文獻 55
I. 中文部分 55
II. 英文部分 56

表目錄
表3-1、粉斑螟蛾之人工飼料配方 16
表4-1、不同食物飼育粉斑螟蛾各蟲期之發育日數及成蟲壽命 25
表4-2、不同食物飼育粉斑螟蛾蛹之長寬與重量 26
表4-3、不同食物飼育粉斑螟蛾之性比、繁殖力、孵化率及環境指數 26
表4-4、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾蛹之長寬與重量 30
表4-5、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾之存活率與性比 33
表4-6、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac不同比例對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力(試驗一) 40
表4-7、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac不同比例對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力(試驗二) 40
表4-8、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac不同比例對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力(試驗三) 41
表4-9、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac= 12/1在不同劑量之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力(低劑量) 46
表4-10、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac= 12/1在不同劑量之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力(高劑量) 46
表4-11、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac=12/1以1 mg裝填於聚氯乙烯塑膠微管之不同週齡之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 51
表4-12、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac=12/1以1 mg裝填於白色橡皮帽之不同週齡之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 51
表4-13、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac=12/1以1 mg裝填於白色橡皮帽之不同週齡之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 52

圖目錄
圖3-1、六角型轉盤 18
圖3-2、風洞裝置 19
圖4-1、不同食物飼育粉斑螟蛾卵至成蟲羽化之存活率 25
圖4-2、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾之卵至化蛹之發育日數 31
圖4-3、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾之蛹期 32
圖4-4、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾之成蟲壽命 34
圖4-5、人工飼料中不同飼養密度粉斑螟蛾之繁殖力 35
圖4-6、粉斑螟蛾不同日齡雌、雄蛾配對24小時後之交尾率 37
圖4-7、以風洞檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac不同比例對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 42
圖4-8、以六角型木質轉盤檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac= 12/1在不同載體之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 44
圖4-9、以風洞檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac= 12/1在不同載體之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 44
圖4-10、以風洞檢定Z9E12-14:Ac/ Z9-14:Ac= 12/1在不同劑量之性費洛蒙誘餌對粉斑螟蛾之誘引力 47
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