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研究生:蘇月熿
研究生(外文):Yech-Hwang Su
論文名稱:厭氧反應槽中都市固體廢棄物與灰燼共同掩埋之重金屬與揮發性有機物溶出研究
論文名稱(外文):Leaching of Heavy Metals and Volatile Organic Compounds from MSW co-disposed with MSWI in Anaerobic Bioreactors
指導教授:羅煌木
指導教授(外文):Huang-Mu Lo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:重金屬揮發有機酸厭氧消化飛灰底灰
外文關鍵詞:MSWI bottom ashVOCsMSWI fly ashHeavy metalsAnaerobic digestion
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本研究以厭氧消化槽(1.2公尺高、20公分直徑,工作反應體積(34公升)模擬掩埋場探討掩埋場添加飛灰、底灰不同比例對垃圾分解產氣量、滲出液中重金屬和揮發性有機物溶出之影響。垃圾主要由報紙(30%)、辦公室用紙(30%)、厚紙版(35%)、有機質廚餘組成(5%),破碎至均勻顆粒使小於1公分後將其和去離子水混合一起攪拌至含6%之總固體物,其有機組成與真實垃圾類似,C/N比約為30-40。覆土以飛灰(0、20、40、60、100 g/L)及底灰(0、100、200、400、600 g/L)不同比例分四層進行掩埋。灰燼取自台中市焚化爐,本研究發現適當的飛灰(20、40 g/L)與底灰(100、200、400、600 g/L)添加,有促進垃圾分解產氣量提昇潛勢。控制組、飛灰與底灰不同比例添加,其重金屬Cd、Cr、Cu、Pb、Ni與Zn溶出濃度分別為ND-0.184、0.003-0.598、ND-0.984、ND-0.822、ND-0.140與ND-1.587 mg L-1。其中Cd的溶出濃度有超過法規滲出液排放標準,顯示灰燼添加需特別注意重金屬溶出與其後續處理問題。滲出液中揮發性有機物控制組中可監測到甲苯與2-丁酮,分別為ND-9.00與ND-92.44 μg L-1,底灰添加組中可監測到甲苯、2-丁酮、2, 2二氯丙烷與氯甲烷,其溶出濃度分別為ND-5.52、ND-726.96、ND-1.57與ND-1.52 μg L-1,飛灰添加組則可監測到甲苯、2-丁酮、2, 2二氯丙烷、氯甲烷、二氯甲烷與溴氯甲烷,其溶出濃度分別為ND-318.32、ND-85.69、ND-178.63、ND-1.89、ND-290.44與ND-1.87 μg L-1,總計六種揮發性有機酸之溶出量控制組為ND-101.44 μg L-1,底灰添加組為ND-735.57 μg L-1,飛灰組為ND-876.84 μg L-1。研究結果指出,適量底灰或飛灰添加垃圾共同掩埋或消化,可促進產氣量之提昇,唯重金屬尤其是鎘與有機揮發酸或其它污染物之溶出後續處理,仍需加以注意,以避免可能產生之二次污染,影響人體健康與生態環境。
This study investigates the effects of different ratios addition of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator (MSWI) ashes on MSW biodegradation by anaerobic bioreactor simulating landfill site. Particularly, the gas production of MSW, heavy metals and volatile organic acids (VOCs) in leachate that might be affected by MSWI ashes addition are the major consideration. The size of anaerobic bioreactor is 1.2 m high and 0.2 m wide and the working volume is ~34 liter. Organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW) is mainly comprised of office paper (30%), newspaper (30%), carton paper (35%) and organic food (5%). They were shredded into pieces with diameter less than 1 cm and blended with deionized water to make a total solids (TS) of 6%. This OFMSW is similar to typical MSW with C/N ratio of around 30-40. Fly ash (0, 20, 40, 60, 100 g/L) or bottom ash (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 g/L) with different ratios were used as landfill cover by four layer arrangement. From the results, it is found that fly ash addition ratios of 20 and 40 g/L and bottom ash addition ratios of 100, 200, 400 and 600 g/L had the potential to increase the MSW biodegradation and gas production. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn concentration in the leachate of control bioreactor, bottom ash added bioreactor and fly ash added bioreactor with different ashes ratios addition were found to be ND-0.184, 0.003-0.598, ND-0.984, ND-0.822, ND-0.140 and ND-1.587 mg L-1. Among them, Cd release was found to have the potential to exceed the environmental regulation standard. It indicates that subsequent leachate treatment of heavy metals needs to be carefully evaluated.
Except heavy metals, VOCs can be detected in leachate of anaerobic bioreactors. Toluene and 2-Butanone in the control bioreactor were measured to be ND-9.00 and ND-92.44 μg L-1 respectively. Toluene, 2-Butanone, 2, 2-Dichloropropane, and chloromethane were analyzed to be ND-5.52, ND-726.96, ND-1.57 and ND-1.52 μg L-1 in the bottom ash added bioreactors respectively. In addition, six VOCs of Toluene, 2-Butanone, 2, 2-Dichloropropane, Chloromethane, Dichloromethane and Bromochloromethane was detected to be ND-318.32, ND-85.69, ND-178.63, ND-1.89, ND-290.44, ND-1.87 μg L-1 in the fly ash added bioreactors, respectively. Total VOCs in leachates of control bioreactor, bottom ash and fly ash added bioreactors were found to be ND-101.44, ND-735.57 and ND-876.84 μg L-1 respectively. Results showed that proper addition of MSWI bottom and fly ash co-disposed or co-digested with MSW could enhance the gas production. However, heavy metals, VOCs and other micro-pollutants released from bioreactor or landfill need to be thoroughly assessed and carefully treated to prevent secondary pollution. Through integrated assessment and treatment, the effects of released pollutants on human health and ecological environment can be reduced.
總目錄
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1國內垃圾處理現況 4
2.1.1垃圾處理 5
2.1.2 垃圾組成 8
2.2 衛生掩埋場 11
2.3 灰燼在衛生掩埋的利用 18
2.3.1都市垃圾灰燼來源 18
2.3.2焚化灰燼之特性 20
2.4衛生掩埋場滲出水的特性 27
2.4.1重金屬的特性 27
2.4.2揮發性有機物的特性 30
第三章 研究步驟與方法 34
3.1 實驗設計 34
3.2 實驗材料 36
3.3 實驗分析方法 39
3.3.1實驗流程 39
3.3.2滲出水重金屬分析 39
3.3.3 滲出水揮發性有機物分析 41
第四章、結果與討論 46
4.1基本參數分析 46
4.1.1垃圾基質與污泥基本參數分析結果 46
4.1.2飛灰、底灰金屬總量分析結果 47
4.2灰燼添加不同量之重金屬分析結果與趨勢圖 47
4.3 灰燼添加不同量之揮發性有機物分析結果與趨勢圖 61
第五章 結論與建議 76
5.1 結論 76
5.2 建議 76
參考文獻 77
附錄 83
表目錄
表2.1 民國84-95年垃圾組成變化 10
表2.2 不同粒徑底灰之化學特性 22
表2.3 底灰的基本物化特性 23
表2.4 垃圾掩埋場滲出水有機物之分佈和種類 31
表2.5 在pH7.0焚化爐飛灰中萃取之有機物 32
表3.1 污泥、基質、飛灰與底灰之金屬含量表 38
表3.2 ICP/OES各項操作參數 40
表3.3 化合物之方法偵測極限 43
圖目錄
圖2.1 垃圾處理場(廠)分布圖 7
圖2.2 垃圾分解過程階段特性 12
圖2.3 垃圾厭氧分解示意圖 14
圖2.4 pH>7時滲出水之濃度變化 29
圖3.1 厭氧生物反應槽之示意圖 36
圖3.2 實驗流程圖 39
圖4.1 基質與污泥基本參數分析表 46
圖4.2 飛灰、底灰金屬總量分析表 47
圖4.3 飛灰組Cd含量趨勢圖 48
圖4.4 飛灰組Cr含量趨勢圖 49
圖4.5 飛灰組Cu含量趨勢圖 50
圖4.6 飛灰組Zn含量趨勢圖 51
圖4.7 飛灰組Pb含量趨勢圖 52
圖4.8 飛灰組Ni含量趨勢圖 53
圖4.9 底灰組Cd含量趨勢圖 54
圖4.10 底灰組Cr含量趨勢圖 55
圖4.11 底灰組Cu含量趨勢圖 56
圖4.12 底灰組Zn含量趨勢圖 57
圖4.13 底灰組Pb含量趨勢圖 58
圖4.14 底灰組Ni含量趨勢圖 59
圖4.15 飛灰組Toluene含量趨勢圖 63
圖4.16 飛灰組2-Butanone含量趨勢圖 64
圖4.17 飛灰組2,2-dichloropropane含量趨勢圖 65
圖4.18 飛灰組Bromomethane含量趨勢圖 66
圖4.19 飛灰組Chloromethane含量趨勢圖 67
圖4.20 飛灰組Methylene chloride含量趨勢圖 68
圖4.21 飛灰組Bromochloro methane含量趨勢圖 69
圖4.22 底灰組Toluene含量趨勢圖 70
圖4.23 底灰組2-Butanone含量趨勢圖 71
圖4.24 底灰組2,2-dichloropropane含量趨勢圖 72
圖4.25 底灰組Bromomethane含量趨勢圖 73
圖4.26 底灰組Chloromethane含量趨勢圖 74
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