(3.236.214.19) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/07 12:30
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳俊偉
研究生(外文):Chun-Wei Chen
論文名稱:幽默的使用對轉換型領導行為與員工創意績效的關係之調節效果
論文名稱(外文):The Moderating Effect of the Use of Humor on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership Behavior and Creative Performance
指導教授:張純莉張純莉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chwen-Li Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:轉換型領導創意績效幽默的使用
外文關鍵詞:the use of humortransformational leadershipcreative performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:289
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:6
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
在知識經濟時代裡,由於環境快速的變遷,企業開始重視員工的想像力,且更鼓勵員工有新穎的觀念或獨特的工作方法。過去有關組織行為的文獻亦指出,讓員工產出具有創造力的創意績效,可為組織創造競爭優勢。因此,領導者如何促使員工提昇創意績效,是目前備受重視的議題之一。本研究主要探討轉換型領導行為與員工創意績效之間的關聯性,並探討轉換型領導行為與員工創意績效間是否透過幽默的使用之調節,進而提昇員工創意績效的產出。
本研究受測之對象為本校碩士在職專班的學生,共發放問卷564份,有效問卷為370份。研究結果顯示,轉換型領導對員工創意績效有顯著正向的影響。其中轉換型領導四個構面裡,以心靈鼓舞行為與個人化關懷行為對員工創意績效的正向影響尤其顯著。此外,幽默的使用對於轉換型領導與創意績效之間的關係亦具有顯著的調節效果,並以幽默的使用對個人化關懷行為的調節作用為最佳。因此,本研究根據所得結果,進一步探討其在管理實務上的意涵、限制與建議。
In the knowledge-economics Age, owing to the environment changes quickly, the enterprises begin to emphasis on employees'' behavior of imagination and even encourage more creative ideas or unique working methods. According to the past study in organization behavior, indicated that employees produce creative performance with creativity, and then can create competitive advantages for the organization. Therefore, one of the most valuable issues at present is how a leader stimulates employees with more creative performance. This research will emphasize on:
1. Finding out the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and subordinate creative performance.
2. Realizing whether the use of humor will moderate the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and subordinate creative performance.
A total of 564 questionnaires were delivered and 370 were valid. The results indicated that transformational leadership behavior has a positively direct effect on subordinate creative performance. In four aspects of the transformational leadership, only inspirational motivation behavior and individualized consideration behavior had a positively direct effect on subordinate creative performance. It was also found that the use of humor moderated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and subordinate creative performance. Individualized consideration behavior had the best moderating effect. According to the results, the managerial implications, limitations and suggestions are further discussed.
目 錄
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌 謝 III
目 錄 IV
表 目 錄 VI
圖 目 錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究主題與研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程與全文架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
第一節 轉換型領導理論 6
第二節 創意績效 16
第三節 幽默感 25
第四節 各研究變項的關係 33
第三章 研究設計 40
第一節 研究架構 40
第二節 研究假設 41
第三節 研究過程與樣本 42
第四節 研究工具與量表 47
第四章 研究結果 59
第一節 調節變項、主要變項與結果變項之間的相關分析 59
第二節 轉換型領導與創意績效的關係 61
第三節 幽默的使用對轉換型領導與創意績效之調節效果 64
第五章 討論與建議 70
第一節 結果討論與建議 70
第二節 管理實務意涵 73
第三節 研究限制 74
第四節 未來研究方向 75
參考文獻 78
中文部分 78
英文部分 79
附錄一 問卷量表 86

表 目 錄
表2-1 轉換型領導定義 7
表2-2 轉換型領導理論比較表 16
表2-3 幽默與幽默感的定義 28
表3-1 問卷收、發統計表 43
表3-2 樣本背景組成 44
表3-3 轉換型領導行為衡量之題項 48
表3-4 轉換型領導行為量表預試之信度分析表 49
表3-5 轉換型領導行為量表因素分析結果 50
表3-6 使用幽默行為衡量之題項 52
表3-7 使用幽默行為量表因素分析結果 53
表3-8 創意績效量表衡量之題項 54
表3-9 創意績效量表因素分析結果 55
表4-1 各變項之相關分析 60
表4-2 轉換型領導行為對創意績效的迴歸分析結果 62
表4-3 轉換型領導行為各構面對創意績效的迴歸分析結果 63
表4-4 幽默的使用對H1之調節效果的階層迴歸分析結果 65
表4-5 幽默的使用對H1A至H4A之調節效果的階層迴歸分析結果 67
表5-1 研究結果摘要表 71

圖 目 錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖 5
圖2-1 WOODMAN ET AL.(1993)的交互作用論模式 19
圖2-2 AMABILE(1996)的個人創造力產出模式 25
圖3-1 研究架構圖 40
圖3-2 轉換型領導之因素陡坡圖 51
圖3-3 幽默的使用之因素陡坡圖 53
圖3-4 創意績效之因素陡坡圖 56
圖4-1 幽默的使用對轉換型領導與創意績效之調節效果 66
圖4-2 幽默的使用對個人化關懷行為與創意績效之調節效果 68
中文部分

1.大前研一(2001)。看不見的新大陸。天下雜誌,(239),172-180。
2.王安智(2004)。從轉型式領導到創造性績效產出的心理歷程。碩士論文,國立台灣大學心理學研究所,台北。
3.吳怡靜(1997)。員工的腦是老闆的寶。天下雜誌,(194),229-231。
4.吳靜宜(2004)。新編幽默理解與幽默創造測驗的發展研究暨其相關因素之探討。未出版碩士論文,國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所,台北。
5.呂翠夏(1986)。幼兒之創造力、玩具類別與假想遊戲的關係。台南師專學報,93-104。
6.林合懋 (1995)。學校主管與企業主管轉型領導之比較研究。未出版碩士論文,國立政治大學教育研究所,台北。
7.林語堂(1980)。吾國吾民。台北:德華。
8. 林維林(1996)。轉換型、交易型領導行為與領導效能關係之研究-以台灣省政府建設廳為個案分析。未出版碩士論文,東海大學公共行政管理研究所,台中。
9.邱發忠(1999)。幽默創造訓練之課程設計及效果評估研究。未出版碩士論文,天主教輔仁大學應用心理系研究所,台北。
10.翁燕然(1998)。活用幽默-你的幽默會轉彎。台北:漢宇。
11.陳玉鎂(2006)。轉換型領導對工作滿足及組織承諾的影響 - 以工作特性為中介變項
。未出版碩士論文,國立中央大學企業管理研究所,桃園。
12.陳學志(2006)。幽默創意課程對教師幽默感及創造力的影響。師大學報,51,71-93。
13.唐永泰(2006)。轉換型領導、工作動機與員工創新行為的關係。人力資源管理學報,冬季號,6(4),47-66。
14.張如鈞(1990),兒童幽默的發展-對幽默漫畫的欣賞與理解。未出版碩士論文,國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所,台北。
15.張言敏(2006)。轉換型領導對區政服務品質之研究。未出版碩士論文,世新大學行政管理研究所,台北。
16.張慶勳(1996)。國小校長轉化、互易領導影響學校組織文化特性與組織效能之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立高雄師範大學教育研究所,高雄。
17.齊若蘭(1996)。愈笑愈聰明。天下雜誌,(186),244-246。
18.蔡進雄(2000)。轉型領導與學校效能(初版)。台北:師大書苑。
19. 劉秋芳(1985)。戲劇遊戲對幼兒認知發展及創造力的影響。未出版碩士論文,文化大學兒童福利研究所,台北。
20. 劉佩雲(1990)。性別、創造力、自我檢校與幽默感的關係。未出版碩士論文,國立政治大學教育研究所,台北。
21.樊昌育 (2006),轉換型領導對於員工工作滿意度與組織承諾之影響 - 以台灣某科技公司大陸廠為個案分析。未出版碩士論文,國立中央大學企業管理研究所,桃園。
22.蕭颯、王文欽、徐智策(1991)。幽默心理學。台北:智慧。

英文部分

1.Amabile, T. M. (1983). The Social Psychology of Creativity, Springer Verlag, New York, NY.
2.Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. InB. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organization Behavior, 187-209. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press
3.Amabile, T. M. (1996).Creativity in context:Update to the social psychology of creativity, Boulder, CO: West view.
4.Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations. California Management Review, 40: 39-58.
5.Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J. & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154-1184.
6.Amabile, T. M., Goldlarb, P. & Brackfield, S. C. (1990). Social influences on creativity: Evaluation, coaction, and surveillance. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 6-21.
7.Amabile, T. M., Mueller, J. S., Simpson, W. B., Hadley, C. N., Kramer S. J. & Fleming L. (2002). Time Pressure and Creativity in Organizations: A Longitudinal Field Study. Harvard Business School Research, 72-73.
8.Aronson, E. (2001). Integrating leadership style and ethical perspectives. Revue Canadienne des Sciences de I’Administation, 18(4), 244-257.
9.Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M. & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examing the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441-462.
10.Avolio, B. J., Howell J. M. & Sosik J. J. (1999). A funny thing happened on the way to the bottom line:Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal. 42(2), 219-227.
11.Barbour, G. (1998). Want to be a successful manager? Now that’s a laughing matter. Public Management. 80(7), 6-9.
12.Barron, F. B. & Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439-476.
13.Basadur, M., Graen, G. B. & Green, S. G. (1982). Training in creative problem solving: Effects on ideation and problem finding and solving in an industrial research organization. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 41-70.
14.Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. NY: Free Press.
15.Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research and Managerial Applications. New York: The Free Press.
16.Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J., (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness though Transformational Leadership. CA:Sage.
17.Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1995). MLQ multifactor leadership questionnaire (2nd ed.). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.
18.Bass, B. M. (1996). Is there universality in the full range model of leadership? International Journal of Public Administration. 19(6),731-761.
19.Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row.
20.Bergen, D. (1998). Development of the sense of humor. In Willibald Ruch. (Eds)., The sense of humor: explorations of a personality characteristic. 329-358.
21.Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. NY: Happer & Row.
22.Carmen, C.M. & Margaret, M. M. (1999). Differential influences of coping humor and humor bias on mood. Behavioral Medicine,25, 36-42.
23.Chapman, A. J. & Hugh C. Foot. (1976). Humor and Laughter: Theory, Research and Applications. London: John Wiley & Sons.
24.Clouse, R. W. & Spurgeon, K. L. (1995). Corporate analysis of humor. Psychology A quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 32, 21-24.
25.Conger, J. A. (1989). The charismatic leader: Beyond the mystique of exceptional leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
26.Craumer, M. (2002). Getting serious about workplace humor. Harvard Management Communication Newsletter, 3-4.
27.Davis, A. & Kleiner, B. (1989). The value of humor in effective leadership, Leadership and Organization Development ,10, 1–111.
28.Decker, W. H. (1987). Managerial humor and subordinate satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 225-232.
29.Dixon, N. F. (1980). Humor: A cognitive alternative to stress? In Sarason I. G.& Spielberger C. D. (Eds.), Stress and anxiety, 7,281-289. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.
30.Downton, J. V. (1973). Rebel Leadership. New York: Free Press.
31.Duncan, W. J. (1982). Humor in management: Prospects for administrative practice and research. Academy of Management Review, 7, 136-142.
32.Forabosco, G. (1992). Cognitive aspects of the humor process: The concept of incongruity. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 5, 45-68.
33.Ford, C. M. (1996). A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains. Academy of Management Review, 21, 1112-1142.
34.Fredrickson, B. L. & Levenson, R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular squealed of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12,191-220.
35.Friedman, H. H. & Langbert, M. (2000). Transformational Leadership: Instituting revolutionary change in your accounting firm. The National Public Accountant, 45, 8-11.
36.Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. NY: Basic Books.
37.Gaustello, S. J., Shissler, J., Driscoll, J. & Hyde, T. (1998). Are some cognitive styles more creatively productive than others?. Journal of Creative Behavior. 32(2), 77-91.
38.George, J. M. & Zhou, J. (2001). When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: An international approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 513-524.
39.Gruber, H. (1981). Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
40.Guilford, J. P. (1984). Varieties of divergent production. Journal of Creative Behavior, 18, 1-10.
41.Herring, R. D. & Meggert, S. S. 1994. The use of humor as a counselor strategy with Native American Indian children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 29, 67-76.
42.House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 Theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership:The cutting edge. Carbondale, IL:Southern Illinois University Press. 189-207.
43.Howe, R. (1997). Description and discussion of six creativity components. 創造性思考教學研討會論文,國立台灣師範大學,台北。
44.Hunt, D. M. & Michael, C. (1983). Mentorship: A career training and development tool, Academy of Management Review, 8, 475-485.
45.Kanungo, R. N. (2001). Ethical value of transactional and transformational leader. Revue Canadienne des Sciences de I’Administation, 18(4), 259-266.
46.Kelly, W. E. (2002). An investigation of worry and sense of humor. The Journal of Psychology, 136(6), 657-666.
47.Keith-Spiegel, P. (1972). Early conceptions of humor: Varieties and issues. In J. H. Goldstein & P. E. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humor: Theoretical Perspectives and EmpiricalIissues, 3-39. New York: Academic Press. Larson (Eds.), Leadership:The cutting edge. Carbondale, IL:Southern Illinois University Press. 189-207.
48.Keyton, J. (1999). Analyzing interaction patterns in dysfunctional teams. Small Group Research, 30 (4), 491-518.
49.Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. New York: Macmillan.
50.Kuiper, N. A. & Martin, R. A. (1998). Is sense of humor a positive personality characteristic? In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a Personality Characteristic. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
51.Kuiper, N. A., Martin, R. A. & Dance, K. A. (1992). Sense of humor and enhanced quality of life. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1273-1283.
52.Kuiper, N. A. & Olinger, L. J. (1998). Humor and mental health. In H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health, 2, 445-457. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
53.Lippitt, G. L. (1982). Humor: A laugh a day keeps the incongruities at bay. Training and Development Journal, 36, 98-100.
54.Long, D. L. & Graesser, A. C. (1988). Wit and humor in discourse processing. Discourse Processes, 11, 35–60.
55.Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M. & Rich, G. A. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and salesperson performance. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. 29(2), 115-135.
56.Madjar, N., Oldham, G. R. & Pratt, M. G. (2002). There''s no place like home? The contributions of work and nonworking creativity support to employees'' creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 757-767.
57.Martin, R. A. (2000). Humor. In A. E. Kazdin (ed.). Encyclopedia of psychology, 4, 202-204.
58.Martin, R. A. & Lefcourt, H. M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,45, 1313-1324.
59.Martin, R. A. & Lefcourt, H. M. (1984). The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire: A quantitative measure of the sense of humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 145-155.
60.Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J. & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48–75.
61.Malone, P. B. (1980). Humor: A double-edged tool for today’s managers? Academy of Management Review, 5(3), 357–360.
62.McGhee, P. E. (1976). Sex differences in children’s humor. In: Journal of Communication, Vol. 2, No.3,176-189.
63.McGhee, P. (1979). Humor: Its Origin and Development. San Francisco: Freeman Press.
64.McGhee, P. E. (1980). Development of the sense of humour in childhood: A longitudinal study. In P. E. McGhee & A. J. Chapman (Eds.), Children’s Humour ,213-236. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
65.Mellou, E. (1996). The two-conditions view of creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 30(2), 120-143.
66.Morreall, J. (1983). Taking Laughter Seriously. Albany: State University of New York Press.
67.Morreall, J. (1991). Humor and work. Humor, 4(4), 359-373.
68.Murdock, M. C. & Ganim, R. M. (1993). Creativity and humor: Integration and incongruity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 27(1), 57–70.
69.Nazareth, J. (1988). The Psychology of Military Humor. New Delhi: Lonor.
70.Nezlek, J. B. & Derks, P. (2001). Use of humor as a coping mechanism, psychological adjustment, and social interaction. Humor, 14, 395-413.
71.Olham, G. R. & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: personal and contextual factors at work, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39 ,No. 3, 607-634.
72.Parry, K. (2000). Does leadership help the bottom line? New Zealand Management, 47, 38-41
73.Policastro, E. & Gardner, H. (1999). From case studies to robust generalizations: An approach to the study of creativity. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.). Handbook of Creativity, 213-255. New York: Cambridge University Press.
74.Quinn, R. E. & Hall, R. H. (1983). Environments, Organizations, and Ppolicy Maker: Towards an Integrative Framework, CA: SAGE.
75.Redmond, M. R., Mumford, M. D. & Teach, R. (1993). Putting creativity to work: Effects of leader behavior on subordinate creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55, 120-151.
76.Robins, S. P. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Prentice-Hall.
77.Rubin, K.H., Fein, G.G., & Vandenberg, B. (1983). Play. In P.H. Mussen(ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Socialization Personality, and Social Development (4th ed.). NY: Wiley, 639-774.
78.Ruch, W. (1993). Exhilaration and humor. In M. Lewis & J.M. Haviland (Eds.), Humor: International Journal of Humor Research,8(3) , 239-250.
79.Sartorius, N. & Kuyken, W. (1994). Translation of health status instruments. In Quality of Life Assessment in Health Care Settings (eds J. Orley & W. Kuyken), Vol. I. Berlin: Springer.
80.Sergiovanni, T. J. (1990). Value-Added leadership: How to get extraordinary result in Schools. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
81.Shalley, C. E. (1991). Effects of productivity goals, creativity goals, and personal discretion on individual creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76,179–185.
82.Shalley, C. E. (1995). Effects of coactions, expected evaluation, and goal setting on creativity and productivity. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 483-503.
83.Shamir, B., House, R. J. & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organizational Science, 4 , 577-594.
84.Shin, S. J. & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 703-714.
85.Simonton, D. K. (2000). Creativity: Cognitive, personal, developmental, and social aspects. American Psychologist, 55, 151-158.
86.Simpson, J. A. & Weiner, E. S. C.(ed.). (1989). The Oxford English Dictionary. (2nd ed.).Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
87.Stelmack, R. M. & Stalikas, A. (1991). Galen and the humor theory of temperament. Personality and Individual Differences,12(3), 255-263.
88.Stein, B. S. (1989). Memory and Creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R, Ronning, & C, R. Reynolds
89.Sternberg, R. J. & Grigorenko, E. (2000). Teaching for Successful Intelligence. Illinois. Skylight.
90.Sternberg, R. J. & Lubart, T. I. (1995). Defying the crowd:Cultivating creativity in a culture of conformity. New York; Free Press.
91.Sternberg, R. J. & Lubart, T. I. (1996). Investing in creativity. American Psychologist, 51, 677-688.
92.Svebak, S. (1974). Revised questionnaire on the sense of humor. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 15, 328-331.
93.Svebak, S. (1996). The development of the sense of humor questionnaire: from SHQ to SHQ-6. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9(3), 341-361.
94.Sykes, A. J. M. (1966). Joking relationships in an industrial setting. American Anthropologist, 68, 188-193.
95.Thorson, J. A. & Powell, F. C. (1993). Development and validation of a multidimensional sense of humor scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 13-23.
96.Thorson, J. A. & Powell, F. C. (1996).Women, aging, and sense of humor. Humor,9(2),169-186.
97.Tichy, N. M. & De Vanna, M. A. (1986). The Transformational Leader. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
98.Tierney, P. & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1137-1148.
99.Treadwell, Y. (1970). Humor and creativity. Psychological Reports, 26, 55-58.
100.Trice, H. M. & Beyer, J. M. (1991), Cultural leadership In Organization, Organization Science, 2, 149-169.
101.Veatch, T. C. (1998). A theory of humor. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research,11(2),161-215.
102.Verma, L. K. (1981). Humor differences among creative and non- creative high school students from various academic streams, India Psychological Review, 20(2), 1-6.
103.Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organizations, Henderson AM, Parsons T (Eds.). Free Press:New York.
104.Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E. & Griffin, R. W. (1993).Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 293-321.
105.Woodman, R. W. & Schoenfeldt, L. F. (1989). Individual Differences in Creativity: An interactionist perspective. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity: 77-92. NY: Plenum.
106.Yovitch, N. A., Dale, J. A. & Hudak, M. A. (1990). Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety. Psychological Reports, 66, 51-58.
107.Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in Organization. England Cliff, New York B Prentice Hall.
108.Zalenik, A. (1977). Managers and Leaders: are they different? Harvard Business Review, 55(5), 67-78.
109.Zaltman, G., Duncan, R. & Holbek, J. (1973). Innovations and Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
110.Zhou, J. & George, M. J. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 682-696.
111.Ziv, A. (1976). Facilitating effects of humor on creative, Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(3),318-322.
112.Ziv, A. (1984). Personality and Sense of Humor. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
113.Ziv, A. & Gadish, O. (1990). Humor and giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13, 332-345.
電子全文 電子全文(本篇電子全文限研究生所屬學校校內系統及IP範圍內開放)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔