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研究生:沈安妮
研究生(外文):An-Ni Shen
論文名稱:無線感測網路之金鑰預先分配機制研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:簡宏宇簡宏宇引用關係陳榮靜陳榮靜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Yu ChienRung-Ching Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理系碩士班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路金鑰協議金鑰預先分配金鑰管理安全
外文關鍵詞:Key agreementKey managementWireless sensor networkSecurityKey pre-distribution
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隨著近幾年微型技術的躍進,無線感測網路就為發展的產品之一。大量的感測節點主要特色在於低成本及沒有任何預先設定的網路架構之下,可以透過自我組態的方式連結成一個網路。無線感測網路由大量的感測節點所組成,而低成本的感測節點本身具有受限制的計算、儲存及感測物理變化的功能。最初的研究方向是軍事應用,隨著無線感測網路技術日漸成熟,相關的應用開始發展,例如:天災回報、工廠監控及智慧家園等…,因此在感測設備之間的金鑰管理機制與安全通訊逐漸受到重視。
由於感測節點低成本的特性,在計算、儲存、廣播範圍及電力都有所限制,目前傳統網路的安全機制都由於計算量或儲存量過高而無法適用。感測節點多部署於無法安全照料的區域,易受到敵人的物理攻擊進而竊取內部秘密資訊以及通訊金鑰。為了讓感測節點之間可以達到安全通訊,目前已有許多學者提相關的金鑰管理機制,但仍有連通性、效能及安全性上的弱點。
在本篇論文的研究中,我們針對無線感測上的金鑰管理,提出高效率、高連結、低儲存成本的感測節點金鑰分配,以及高延展性及高安全性的階層式無線感測網路金鑰分配二個機制,分別適用於平面式與階層式的無線感測網路,解決金鑰協議問題。並針對此二個機制做詳細的安全及效能分析。
Recently, the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) has applied to a variety of applications. And the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) relies on it to work. The wireless sensor network (WSNs) adopts MEMS technology and do not rely on any pre-deployed network architecture. It thus communicates via a self-organization protocol to autonomously aggregate into collaborative, peer-to-peer networks. A wireless sensor networks is composed of a large number of low-cost sensor nodes; each sensor node with limited battery power, limited memory storage, limited data processing capacity and limited short radio transmission range. Now a WSNs can be operate to variety application, such as disaster response, factory monitoring and intelligent house control in civil scenarios. To deploy a WSNs, the sensitive data must be protected properly. Therefore, the key management scheme for WSNs is very important.
However, due to the limited-resources of sensors, conventional asymmetric key cryptosystem can not be applied in WSNs. And sensors nodes often are deployed in unattached area; the adversary may be able to easily capture the sensor devices to compromise their stored sensitive data and communication keys. To establish security channel between sensor nodes, many related key management schemes for WSNs have been proposed, but these schemes are either inefficiency, insecure or provide probabilistic connectivity.
In this study, we propose two key management schemes to solve key agreement problem. One is for flat WSNs and other is for hierarchical WSNs We also analyze its security and evaluate its performance.
目 錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目 錄 V
圖 目 錄 VIII
表 目 錄 IX
第一章 簡介 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機 3
1.3研究目的 3
1.4論文架構 5
第二章 無線感測網路之簡介 6
2.2資料與網路通訊模式 7
2.3資料傳送(data delivery)模式 8
2.5感測節點組成架構 10
2.6 無線感測網路的安全問題 12
第三章 相關研究 17
3.1 傳統金鑰分配機制於無線感測網路 18
3.1.1單一全網路金鑰 18
3.1.2完全成對金鑰共享 19
3.1.3金鑰分配中心 19
3.2非對稱式金鑰密碼系統 20
3.3 基於隨機金鑰預先分配機制 22
3.3.1基本隨機金鑰預先分配機制 22
3.3.2基於多項式池之金鑰預先分配機制 23
3.3.3基於擬亂數金鑰預先分配機制 25
3.3.4 Multi-Space金鑰預先分配機制 26
3.3.5 EPKEM金鑰預先分配機制 29
3.4 IKDM金鑰管理機制 33
3.5 相關金鑰機制比較與討論 36
第四章 高效率、高連結、低儲存成本的感測節點金鑰分配 39
4.1回顧Blom金鑰分配機制 39
4.2雙矩陣預先分配機制 41
4.3雙矩陣金鑰預先分配機制之安全分析 43
4.3.1廢除破解金鑰 43
4.3.2新增節點 44
4.3.3抵抗複製節點攻擊 45
4.3.4捕獲節點對網路影響 46
4.3.5連通率及通訊成本之評估 47
第五章 ESKDM金鑰預先分配機制 48
5.1網路模組 48
5.2對稱式雙變量多項式方程式 49
5.3 ESKDM金鑰預先分配機制 50
5.4 ESKDM安全分析及討論 53
5.4.1新增節點 53
5.4.2網路連通性 57
5.4.3節點捕獲攻擊 57
5.4.4效能分析 57
第六章 結論與未來工作 63
結論…… 63
參考文獻 65

圖 目 錄
圖 2-1感測器硬體構造 7
圖 2-3 異質性無線感測網路 11
圖 3-1 單一全網路金鑰分配 18
圖 3-2 完全成對金鑰共享通訊 19
圖 3-3金鑰分配中心流程 20
圖 3-4 非對稱式金鑰機制流程 21
圖 3-5 金鑰預先分配階段 23
圖 3-6 多項池之金鑰分配機制 24
圖 3-7 當節點被捕獲 洩露的私密訊息矩陣 的值 28
圖 3-8 節點部署後位置 35
圖 4- 1矩陣 的範例 40
圖 4- 2對稱式矩陣 範例 40
圖 4- 3 Blom機制矩陣 形成圖 41
圖 4-4 雙矩陣機制之矩陣 形成圖 42
圖 4- 5 廢除節點流程圖 44
圖 4-6 新節點部署之後金鑰建立流程 45
圖 5-1 基地台線上狀態新增節點流程 54
圖 5-2 新節點部署圖 55
圖 5-3 基地台離線狀態新增節點流程 56
圖5- 4 感測節點能源消耗狀況 60

表 目 錄
表2- 1 無線感測網路安全議題 12
表2- 2 WSNs常見攻擊方式 13
表 3-1 金鑰管理的需求與評估 17
表 3-2 金鑰矩陣 29
表 3-3 金鑰矩陣 的範例 31
表 3-4 節點分配金鑰鏈之狀況 31
表 3-5 金鑰管理機制比較 38
表5- 1效能分析比較表 59
表5- 2 ESKDM、IKDM與LEKM機制能源消耗比較表 62
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