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研究生:張曉菁
研究生(外文):Hsiao-ching chang
論文名稱:品種與採收成熟度對梅子釀造酒品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of cultivars and ripeness at harvest of fruit on the quality of mei wine
指導教授:陳雪娥;陳政雄
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Err Chen; Shaun Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:梅子釀造酒品種採收成熟度固相微萃取法
外文關鍵詞:mei winecultivarsripeness at harvestSPME
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梅酒釀製以浸漬法及發酵法為主,因製法上之差異,影響梅酒的風味及口感。據市場需求及酒品評鑑結果得知,市售梅子釀造酒的品質接受度略低,除因釀造技術、條件有待提昇外,採用之梅子種類及成熟度差異頗大,也是造成品質參差不齊的原因之一。故本研究之目的為找出適合梅子釀造酒之梅子品種與成熟度,以期能有效改善台灣梅子釀造酒的品質。
首先以二青梅為原料,經殺菁、破碎製得梅泥後,以不同酵母菌種及不同梅泥含量之梅果醪進行發酵,找出適合梅酒的發酵條件,進而探討不同梅子品種及成熟度對於梅子釀造酒品質之影響,
結果顯示,兩株酵母菌Saccharomyces cerevisiae ICV D-47及Wa-16所釀製之梅酒酒精度均可達13%(v/v),經熟陳2個月後之感官品評結果,以ICV D-47所釀造之梅酒的風味較好,酸味、苦味及澀味比Wa-16所釀造之梅酒低,故選擇ICV D-47為釀造梅酒的酵母菌種。以30% 及20% 梅泥發酵醪進行發酵,發現30%之果醪發酵天數較短,酒精含量可達13% (v/v),感官品評時香氣足夠、口感豐富,整體品質比20% 梅泥含量之梅酒佳(p<0.05)。
三個不同採收成熟度之二青梅果實,採收時間分別為4/13、4/20、5/2,經黃熟後分析,可溶性固形物含量以4/13最高,可滴定酸以5/2含量最低。三者發酵過程中,物化性質變化相似。新酒成分中,以採收時間為4/20之梅酒的可滴定酸含量最高,總酚含量以採收時間為5/2的梅酒最多(p<0.05),酒液的色澤也最深(p<0.05)。三個採收成熟度所釀造的梅酒在香氣、滋味、整體感及喜好性無顯著之差異。
不同梅品種的果實成份具有些微之差異,其中胭脂梅的可滴定酸含量較二青梅及軟枝梅低,為5.39 g/100mL(以檸檬酸計),且梅泥顏色最深。發酵過程中,二青梅果醪的發酵速率略快,酒精含量也較高。新酒成份中,軟枝梅釀造酒有較低的可滴定酸含量及較多的總酚含量(p<0.05);而胭脂梅釀造酒的酒液顏色則較深。感官品評得知,軟枝梅釀造酒在香氣方面明顯較另外兩者好(p<0.05),然品種對滋味及整體感則影響不大。
由固相微萃取法分析梅酒香氣結果得知,不論成熟度或品種所釀造的梅酒皆可初步鑑定含有酯類、醇類、萜烯類及酚。其中由面積比較發現,皆以辛酸乙酯(ethyl caprylate)、癸酸乙酯(ethyl caprate)為含量較高之揮發性物質。
因此,就採收成熟度或梅品種等因素而言,並無造成梅酒的品質差異,但會受其他因素的影響如熟陳時間之長短。由於實驗結果中,無法直接判斷所鑑定的香氣成分對梅酒品質的影響,所以値得未來深入研究。
Mei wine is commercially made by soaking and/or fermentation, however, the flavor and taste of two types wine are quite different. According to marketing survey and sensory evaluation, commercial Mei wines by fermentation are characterized inconsistent quality and less acceptable, except the reason of technology problems, divers cultivars and maturity of fruit might be the another reason. Therefore, this research aimed to improve the quality of Taiwan Mei wine focusing on cultivars and maturity.
Study started to find out the optimal conditions of Mei wine making. Erh-ching Mei fruits were used as raw material, after blanching and crushing, the Mei puree was inoculated with different yeasts. The selected yeast was applied to study the effect of puree content on the quality of Mei wine. And then, the influence of cultivars and maturity on the quality of Mei wine was taken into account in the study.
The results showed Mei wines vinified by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ICV D-47 and Wa-16 could produce ethanol up to 13% (v/v), however, ICV D-47 Mei wine had better flavor and less sour, bitter and astringent than Wa-16 wine by sensory evaluation. Mei must with 20 and 30% of puree content were fermented by yeast ICV D-47, and result displayed must with 30% of mei puree content need shorter fermentation periods to reach 13% (v/v) alcohol content. The findings of sensory evaluation revealed also Mei wine made from 30% of puree content retained better aroma, rich body and overall quality than wine mdae from 20% of puree content (p<0.05).
The analyzed results of Erh-ching Mei fruits from ripeness at harvest were 4/13, 4/20 and 5/2 showed the fruits from harvest date 4/13 had the highest soluble solids content, those from harvest date 5/2 held the least titratable acidity value. During the fermentation there were no significant difference in fermentation rate and alcohol content among the Mei wine from fruits of ripeness at harvest. Young Mei wine from fruits of harvest date 4/20 had the highest of titratable acidity value; mei wine from those of harvest date 5/2 owed the highest total phenol content (p<0.05) and the darkest color (p<0.05). Sensory score in aroma, taste, overall and preference were not significantly different among three Mei wines.
Different Mei cultivars showed slight difference in the physiochemical properties, in which Yen-chih mei fruit had the titratable acidity content, 5.39 g/100mL and the color of it’s puree was the darkest. During the fermentation, Erh-ching Mei must held the faster fermentation rate and produced higher alcohol content. Young Juan-chih Mei wine had the least titratable acidity and the highest total phenol contents (p<0.05); Yen-chih Mei wine was the darkest color. The results of sensory evaluation revealed Juan-chih Mei wine owed higher score in aroma than the others (p<0.05), however, no significant difference in taste and overall quality among Mei wine from different cultivars.
Esters, alcohols, terpenes and phenols compounds were detected in Mei wines made from different maturity or cultivars by solid-phase microextraction technique. Ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate were highest among those volatile compounds by GC peak area ratio.
Therefore, for the quality of Mei wine, no significant difference between ripeness at harvest of fruit and cultivars was observed. However, other factor as aging time will impact on product characteristic. Further study of the influence of identified aroma compounds on Mei wine quality should be taken into investigation.
目錄
頁次
第一章、前言1
第二章、文獻回顧4
一、梅子簡介4
二、梅酒種類及製法16
(一)水果酒簡介16
(二)梅子利口酒19
(三)梅子釀造酒19
三、影響梅子釀造酒品質之因素21
(一)原料----梅子21
(二)果醪製備36
1.殺菁36
   2.果膠分解酵素36
(三)酵母菌37
1.營養需求37
2.酵母菌種38
   3.菌酛製作38
   4.酒精發酵39
5.酒的風味物質41
(1)醇類41
(2)有機酸41
(3)酯類42
(4)羥基化合物42
(四)熟陳作用43
(五)勾兌及調味44
四、香氣之萃取45
第三章、材料與方法52
一、實驗材料52
二、實驗架構55
三、實驗方法58
四、物化分析方法61
五、感官品評70
六、統計方法72
第四章、結果與討論73
一、梅酒釀製條件之篩選73
(一)酵母菌種篩選73
(二)梅泥含量比例之探討83
二、不同採收成熟度梅子對釀造酒品質之影響92
(一)果實特性之探討92
(二)梅酒釀製及品質之探討96
(三)揮發性成分之探討107
三、不同梅品種對梅酒釀製及品質之影響113
(一)果實特性之探討113
(二)梅酒釀製及品質之探討117
(三)揮發性成分之探討128
第五章、結論134
第六章、參考文獻135
附錄153
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