(18.210.27.34) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/08/17 19:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:林建良
研究生(外文):Chien-Liang Lin
論文名稱:梅精之化學成分、生物活性及台灣市售產品之定性、定量分析
論文名稱(外文):Chemical Constituents, Bioactives, Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Commercial Mei-Gin Products in Taiwan
指導教授:吳永昌吳永昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang-Chang Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:天然藥物研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:藥學學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:225
中文關鍵詞:梅精化學成分生物活性定性分析定量分析
外文關鍵詞:Chemical ConstituentsBioactivesQualitative Quantitative AnalysesCommercial Mei-Gin ProductsTaiwan
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:16607
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
梅子(Prunus mume)是屬於亞洲區薔薇科(Rosaceae)的
李子的一種。梅源產於中國大陸,後來引種到台灣、日本及韓國。梅
精則為未成熟的梅子的果實搾汁之後,以減壓濃縮提煉而成的黑色液
狀產物。梅精被認為是保健性的食品,對增進健康、抗發炎、延緩老
化以及預防癌症均有助益。
在本研究中,從梅精水萃物的乙酸乙酯層中分離得到11 個化合
物,包括一個furanic compound:5-hydroxymethylfurfural (1);兩個organic acids:citric acid(2)、1,5-dimethyl citrate(3);八個benzenoids : butyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ( 4 )、trans-p-coumaric acid ( 5 )、chlorogenic acid ( 6 )、3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid ( 7 ) 、
4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid(8)、hydroquinone(9)、
protocatechuic acid(10)以及veratric acid(11)。所有化合
物的之化學結構都是藉由質譜以及光譜分析方法確認。其中,化合物
1、2、3、10 是為梅精之主要成分。
過去研究發現,5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF,1)具有
促進血液流通性,且為梅精中的主要活性成分。所以我們針對梅精中
分離得到的HMF 進行HPLC 的定性定量分析,分析樣品包括台灣梅精產品共10 種、日本梅精產品共3 種、特殊製程之梅精產品共5 種、
市售梅子飲料共2 種、以及青梅水萃物與經迴流加熱之樣品共3 種,
總共六大類計24 種分析樣品。
分析結果發現各種梅精產品中的HMF 含量不盡相同且差異甚大,
主要原因是在梅精的加工製程中的差異性所造成的,在研究中也發現
對於梅精使用不同的萃取方法會影響HMF 的產量。因此研究結果顯
示梅精的品質管制是為相當重要的議題。
目前在台灣,梅精產品還沒有一個可以判斷品質優劣的標準,市
面上的產品品質也是參差不齊,在品質管制方面一直無法獲得令人滿
意的成果,透過HMF 的定性定量分析,便可確立初步品質管制的模
式,為梅精產品訂出一個簡易有效率且具代表性的化學指紋圖
(Chemical fingerprint),使所有同一產程的產品一致化以及標準
化,這將對於梅子產業有相當大的助益,不僅可以提升梅子的經濟價
值,並且增加在市場上的競爭力,因此利用HMF 作為Bioactive
standard marker,並且為梅精產品建立起品質管制模式在未來將
會是相當重要的研究之一。
Prunus mume is a species of Asian plum in the family
Rosaceae. The tree originates from China, and was brought
to Taiwan, Japan and Korea later. The extract of Prunus
mume (Mei-Gin) is a highly concentrated and dark black
liquid product made from squeeze juice of premature P.
mume. Mei-Gin has been generally recognized as a food
with several constitutional properties, including
healthy-improvement, anti-inflammation, slow aging and
cancer-prevention.
In this study, eleven compounds were isolated from the
ethyl acetate part of water extract of Mei-Gin including 1
furanic compound:5-hydroxymethylfurfural(1) ; 2 organic
acids:citric acid(2), 1,5-dimethyl citrate(3) ; 8 benzenoids:
butyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(4), trans-p-coumaric acid(5),
chlorogenic acid(6), 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenzoic
acid ( 7 ) , 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid ( 8 ) ,
hydroquinone(9), protocatechuic acid(10), and veratric
acid ( 11 ) . The structures of these compounds were
XV
elucidated by spectroscopic method. Moreover, compounds
1, 2, 3 and 10 were isolated in major quantities.
In previous literatures, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
showed blood fluidity improvement and was suggested as
the active constituent in Mei-Gin. A HPLC profile was
developed for qualitative and quantitive analysis for HMF of
commercial Mei-Gin products including 6 types and 24
samples : 10 Taiwan Mei-Gin product, 3 Japan Mei-Gin
product, 5 specialized-procedure Mei-Gin product, 2
commercial plum drink, 1 fresh plum extracts, and 2
heating-procedure samples.
On the basis of our results, the commercial products
have widely varieties in contains of HMF. It means farmers
or companies got original materials and produced Mei-Gin
products in different ways. Different extraction methods
also led different yields of HMF. Therefore, the quality
control of Mei-Gin becomes an important issue.
Up to now in Taiwan, there are no any standards for
quality control in Mei-Gin production so far. The quality of
commercial Mei-Gin products are different from each other
XVI
and shows unsatisfied results.
however, In future, possibly, HMF can be applied as a
bioactive standard marker for quality control of Mei-Gin.
Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of
HMF, we can establish the model of quality control, and find
out facilitative, efficient, and representative chemical
fingerprint for commercial Mei-Gin products. Standardizng
the Mei-Gin product from the same procedure will bestead
the market of plum in Taiwan. Not only advancing the
economic value of plum, but also accelerating the
competitiveness in marketplace. Establishent of quality
control model with HMF as a bioactive standard marker will
be crucial issue in the future.
目錄‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐I
圖目錄‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐III
表目錄‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐XI
中文摘要‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐XII
英文摘要‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐XIV
第一章 緒論‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 1
第一節 前言‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 1
第二節 植物形態及分佈‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐6
第三節 文獻回顧‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐23
第四節 研究動機‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐62
第二章 研究材料及方法‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐65
第三章 化合物之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐71
第一節 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural(1)之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐71
第二節 Citric acid(2)之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐77
第三節 1,5-Dimethyl citrate(3)之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐83
第四節 trans-p-Coumaric acid(5)之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐89
第五節 Chlorogenic acid(6)之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐94
II
第六節 3-Hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid(7)
之結構解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐104
第七節 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid(8)之結構
解析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐110
第四章 梅精市售產品定性和定量分析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐116
第一節 梅精市售產品之定性分析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐118
第二節 梅精市售產品之定量分析‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐139
第五章 生物活性實驗‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐166
第六章 結論‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐170
第七章 相關實驗部分‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐174
第一節 儀器與材料‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐174
第二節 植物材料與分離純化‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐179
第三節 各化合物之實驗數據‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐183
第八章 參考文獻‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐195
1. 劉方梅, 國產青梅產業現況與輔導措施. In 行政院農業委員會中部辦公室,
Ed. 2004.
2. 行政院農業委員會, 農業統計年報95 年. In 行政院農業委員會, Ed. 2006.
3. 農林水産省, 平成19 年産うめの収穫量及び出荷量. In 農林水産省, Ed.
2007.
4. 科学技術庁資源調査会, 日本食品標準成分表. In 5 ed.; 2003.
5. Takizima, Y., The chemical components of Japanese apricot, Prunus mume.
Kagaku no Ryoiki 1948, 2, 81‐82.
6. Takizima, Y., The chemical components of Japanese apricot, Prunus mume.
Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 1949, 23, 8‐10.
7. 國家中醫藥管理局中華本草編委會, 中華本草. 上海科學技術出版社: 2000;
Vol. 4.
8. 國家中醫藥管理局中華本草編委會, 中華本草. 上海科學技術出版社: 2000;
Vol. 4, p 2562‐2571.
9. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosaceae.
10. edition, E. C. o. t. F. o. T. S., Flora of Taiwan. 2 ed.; Vol. 3.
11. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus.
12. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_mume.
13. Hasegawa, M., Flavonoids of various Prunus species. VIII. Flavonoids in the
wood of P. mume. J. Org. Chem. 1959, 24, 408‐409.
14. Hasegawa, M., Flavonoids of various Prunus species. IX. Two new flavonoid
196
glycosides from the wood of Prunus mume. Shokubutsugaku Zasshi 1969, 82,
(970), 148‐154.
15. Kameoka, H.; Kitagawa, C., Constituents of the fruits of Prunus mume Sieb. and
Zucc. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 1976, 50, (9), 389‐393.
16. Chen, Z.; Sun, S.; Xu, Q.; Liu, G.; Hu, S.; Wu, Z., Active choleretic principle in
Yemeigen (root of Prunus mume). Zhongcaoyao 1986, 17, (11), 482‐483.
17. Akiyama, Y.; Matsushita, S., Studies on components of Japanese apricot extract
and prune extract. Jpn. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1992, 38, (4), 378‐383.
18. Ina, H.; Yamada, K.; Miyazaki, T., Isolation of benzyl glucoside and chlorogenic
acids from the fruits of Prunus mume. Nat. Med. (Tokyo) 1999, 53, (2), 109.
19. Chuda, Y.; Ono, H.; Ohnishi‐Kameyama, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Nagata, T.; Kikuchi,
Y., Mumefural, citric acid derivative improving blood fluidity from fruit‐juice
concentrate of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc). J. Agric. Food
Chem. 1999, 47, (3), 828‐831.
20. Shirasaka, N.; Kurematsu, A.; Kondo, N.; Kondo, S.; Iida, M.; Hasegawa, T.;
Murakami, T.; Yoshizumi, H., Isolation and characterization of antioxidative
compounds from Ume (Prunus mume) liqueur. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku
Kogaku Kaishi 1999, 46, (12), 792‐798.
21. Yoshikawa, M.; Murakami, T.; Ishiwada, T.; Morikawa, T.; Kagawa, M.; Higashi, Y.;
Matsuda, H., New flavonol oligoglycosides and polyacylated sucroses with
inhibitory effects on aldose reductase and platelet aggregation from the
flowers of Prunus mume. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, (8), 1151‐1155.
22. Matsuda, H.; Morikawa, T.; Ishiwada, T.; Managi, H.; Kagawa, M.; Higashi, Y.;
Yoshikawa, M., Medicinal flowers. VIII. Radical scavenging constituents from
the flowers of Prunus mume: Structure of prunose III. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2003,
197
51, (4), 440‐443.
23. 黃惠纓. 梅精之化學組成及製程中化學變化之研究. 台灣大學, 2003.
24. Jeong, J. T.; Moon, J.‐H.; Park, K.‐H.; Shin, C. S., Isolation and Characterization of
a New Compound from Prunus mume Fruit that Inhibits Cancer Cells. J. Agric.
Food Chem. 2006, 54, (6), 2123‐2128.
25. Miyazawa, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Inada, K.‐i.; Yamada, T.; Okuno, Y.; Tanaka, H.;
Tatematsu, M., Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori motility by (+)‐syringaresinol
from unripe Japanese apricot. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006, 29, (1), 172‐173.
26. Dogasaki, C.; Murakami, H.; Nishijima, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.,
Antimutagenic activities of hexane extracts of the fruit extract and the kernels
of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. Yakugaku Zasshi 1992, 112, (8), 577‐584.
27. Ina, H.; Yamada, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, T., Inhibitory effects of benzyl
glucoside and chlorogenic acid from Prunus mume on bradykinin and
prostaglandin E2 production in the abdominal cavities of mice. Nat. Med.
(Tokyo, Jpn.) 2002, 56, (5), 184‐186.
28. Ina, H.; Yamada, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, T., Effects of benzyl glucoside and
chlorogenic acid from Prunus mume on angiotensin converting enzyme,
aldosterone and corticosterone levels in rat plasma. Nat. Med. (Tokyo, Jpn.)
2003, 57, (5), 178‐180.
29. 洪文傑. 梅精之加工探討及對倉鼠血脂之影響. 國立中興大學, 2005.
30. Chen, R.‐Y.; Yang, H.‐T.; Tsai, M.‐J.; Lin, S.‐B., Antioxidant activity and amygdalin
contents of Mei (Prunus mume Seibu. et Zucc.) flower and fruit water extract at
different maturity. Taiwan Nongye Huaxue Yu Shipin Kexue 2006, 44, (6),
390‐396.
31. Lin, S.‐B.; Wu, C.‐A.; Tsai, M.‐J.; Yang, H.‐T.; Chen, R.‐Y., Antioxidative activity
198
and amygdalin content of water extract of meifruit (Prunus mume Seibu. et
Zucc) and its processed products. Taiwan Nongye Huaxue Yu Shipin Kexue 2007,
45, (1), 46‐53.
32. Okada, T.; Sawada, T.; Osawa, T.; Adachi, M.; Kubota, K., A novel anti‐cancer
substance, MK615, from ume, a variety of Japanese apricot, inhibits growth of
hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing Aurora A kinase activity.
Hepato‐Gastroenterology 2007, 54, (78), 1770‐1774.
33. Yingsakmongkon, S.; Miyamoto, D.; Sriwilaijaroen, N.; Fujita, K.; Matsumoto, K.;
Jampangern, W.; Hiramatsu, H.; Guo, C.‐T.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Hidari, K.;
Suzuki, T.; Ito, M.; Ito, Y.; Suzuki, Y., In vitro inhibition of human influenza A virus
infection by fruit‐juice concentrate of Japanese plum (Prunus mume SIEB. et
ZUCC). Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2008, 31, (3), 511‐515.
34. Chuda, Y., Blood fluidity‐improving effect of fruit‐juice concentrate of Japanese
apricot. Kagaku to Seibutsu 2004, 42, (4), 236‐239.
35. Takatera, K.; Ogawa, H.; Meguro, T.; Shirasaka, N.; Yoshizumi, H., Effects of
umezu extract on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in stroke‐prone
spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high‐cholesterol diet. Nippon Eiyo,
Shokuryo Gakkaishi 2004, 57, (6), 249‐255.
36. Kubo, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Matsuda, H.; Gato, N.; Kotani, T., Effect of fruit‐juice
concentrate of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SEIB. et ZUCC.) on improving
blood fluidity. Nat. Med. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 2005, 59, (1), 22‐27.
37. Fan, W.; Tezuka, Y.; Ni, K. M.; S., K., Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitors from the
Underground Part of Rhodiola sachalinensis. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001, 49, (1),
396‐401.
38. Fukuda, T.; Ito, H.; Mukainaka, T.; Tokuda, H.; Nishino, H.; Yoshida, T.,
199
Anti‐tumor Promoting Effect of Glycosides from Prunus persica Seeds.
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2003, 26, (2), 271‐273.
39. Mook‐Jung, I.; Kim, H.; Fan, W.; Tezuka, Y.; Kadota, S.; Nishijo, H.; Jung, M. W.,
Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents of the Oriental Crude Drugs, Rhodiola
sacra, R. sachalinensis and Tokaku‐joki‐to, against Beta‐amyloid Toxicity,
Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2002, 25,
(8), 1101‐1104.
40. Kitajima, J.; Tanaka, Y., Constituents of Prunus zippeliana Leaves and Branches.
Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1993, 41, (11), 2007‐2009.
41. Matsuda, H.; Ando, S.; Morikawa, T.; Kataoka, S.; Yoshikawa, M.,
Structure‐activity relationships of 1''S‐1''‐acetoxychavicol acetate for inhibitory
effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide‐activated mouse peritoneal
macrophages. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2005, 15, (7),
1949‐1954.
42. Morikawa, T.; Ando, S.; Matsuda, H.; Kataoka, S.; Muraoka, O.; Yoshikawa, M.,
Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Production from the Rhizomes of Alpinia galanga:
Structures of New 8–9'' Linked Neolignans and Sesquineolignan. Chemical &
Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2005, 53, (6), 625‐630.
43. Rivero‐Cruz, B.; Rojas, M. A.; Rodriguez‐Sotres, R.; Cerda‐Garcia‐Rojas, C. M.;
Mata, R., Smooth Muscle Relaxant Action of Benzyl Benzoates and Salicylic Acid
Derivatives from Brickellia veronicaefolia on Isolated Guinea‐Pig Ileum. Planta
Medica 2005, 71, (4), 320‐325.
44. Shimomura, H.; Sashida, Y.; Adachi, T., Phenylpropanoid glucose esters from
Prunus buergeriana. Phytochemistry 1988, 27, (2), 641‐644.
45. Shimomura, H.; Sashida, Y.; Mimaki, Y.; Adachi, T.; Yoshinari, K., A New
200
Mevalonolactone Glucoside Derivative from the Bark of Prunus buergeriana.
Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1989, 37, (3), 829‐830.
46. Lee, M.‐H.; Lin, R.‐D.; Shen, L.‐Y.; Yang, L.‐L.; Yen, K.‐T.; Hou, W.‐C., Monoamine
Oxidase B and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Natural Flavonoids in
Melastoma candidum D. Don. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2001,
49, (11), 5551‐5555.
47. Melzig, M. F.; Loeser, B.; Ciesielski, S., Inhibition of neutrophil elastase activity
by phenolic compounds from plants. Pharmazie 2001, 56, (12), 967‐970.
48. Park, K. Y.; Lee, S.‐H.; Min, B.‐K.; Lee, K.‐S.; Choi, J.‐S.; Chung, S. R.; Min, K. R.;
Kim, Y., Inhibitory Effect of Luteolin 4''‐O‐Glucoside from Kummerowia striata
and Other Flavonoids on Interleukin‐5 Bioactivity. Planta Medica 1999, 65, (5),
457‐459.
49. Zhao, C.; Guo, W.; Chen, J., Isolation and Structural Identification of the
Anthocyanins from the Flower Color Pigment of Prunus mume ''Nanjing
Hongxu''. Linye Kexue 2006, 42, (1), 29‐36.
50. Tamase, K.; Kitada, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Yamazoe, Y., Determination of cyanogenic
glycosides in Japanese apricot. Nara‐ken Eisei Kenkyusho Nenpo 1986, (21),
95‐97.
51. Hasegawa, M.; Shirato, T., Flavanoids of various Prunus species. III. The
flavanoids in the wood of Prunus campanulata. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954, 76,
5560‐5561.
52. Ahmad, M.; Nichols, P. J.; Smith, H. J.; Ahmadi, M., Effect of P450
Isozyme‐selective Inhibitors on In‐vitro Metabolism of Retinoic Acid by Rat
Hepatic Microsomes. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2000, 52, (3),
311‐314.
201
53. Manthey, J. A.; Guthrie, N., Antiproliferative Activities of Citrus Flavonoids
against Six Human Cancer Cell Lines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
2002, 50, (21), 5837‐5843.
54. Lee, D.; Bhat, K. P. L.; Fong, H. H. S.; Farnsworth, N. R.; Pezzuto, J. M.; Kinghorn,
A. D., Aromatase Inhibitors from Broussonetia papyrifera. Journal of Natural
Products 2001, 64, (10), 1286‐1293.
55. Matsuda, H.; Morikawa, T.; Toguchida, I.; Yoshikawa, M., Structural
requirements of flavonoids and related compounds for aldose reductase
inhibitory activity. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002, 50, (6), 788‐795.
56. Areias, F. M. R., A. C.; Oliveira, C. R.; Seabra, R. M., Antioxidant effect of
flavonoids after ascorbate/Fe2+‐induced oxidative stress in cultured retinal
cells. Biochemical Pharmacology 2001, 62, (1), 111‐118.
57. Matsuda, H.; Wang, T.; Managi, H.; Yoshikawa, M., Structural requirements of
flavonoids for inhibition of protein glycation and radical scavenging activities.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2003, 11, (24), 5317‐5324.
58. Kawaii, S.; Tomono, Y.; Katase, E.; Ogawa, K.; Yano, M., Antiproliferative Activity
of Flavonoids on Several Cancer Cell Lines. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and
Biochemistry 1999, 63, (5), 896‐899.
59. Miura, Y. H.; Tomita, I.; Watanabe, T.; Hirayama, T.; Fukoi, S., Active Oxygens
Generation by Flavonoids. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1998, 21, (2),
93‐96.
60. Sadik, C. D. S., H.; Schewe, T., Inhibition of 15‐lipoxygenases by flavonoids:
structure–activity relations and mode of action. Biochemical Pharmacology
2003, 65, (5), 773‐782.
61. Bruyne, T. D.; Pieters, L.; Witvrouw, M.; Clercq, E. D.; Berghe, D. V.; Vlietinck, A.
202
J., Biological Evaluation of Proanthocyanidin Dimers and Related Polyphenols.
Journal of Natural Products 1999, 62, (7), 954‐958.
62. Divi, R. L.; Doerge, D. R., Inhibition of Thyroid Peroxidase by Dietary Flavonoids.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 1996, 9, (1), 16‐23.
63. Lee, S.‐J.; Yun, Y.‐S.; Lee, I.‐K.; Ryoo, I.‐J.; Yun, B.‐S.; Yoo, I.‐D., An Antioxidant
Lignan and Other Constituents from the Root Bark of Hibiscus syriacus. Planta
Medica 1999, 65, (7), 658‐660.
64. Sluis, A. A. v. d.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.; Jongen, W. M. F., An Improved, Rapid
in Vitro Method To Measure Antioxidant Activity. Application on Selected
Flavonoids and Apple Juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2000,
48, (9), 4116‐4122.
65. Fan, W.; Tezuka, Y.; Kadota, S., Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitory Activity of
Fourteen Kampo Formulas and Inhibitory Constituents of Tokaku‐joki‐to.
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2000, 48, (7), 1055‐1061.
66. Albassam, B. A., Inhibition of Wheat Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity by Phenolic
Compounds. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2000, 64, (7),
1507‐1510.
67. Yang, Z.‐G.; Li, H.‐R.; Wang, L.‐Y.; Li, Y.‐H.; Lu, S.‐G.; Wen, X.‐F.; Wang, J.;
Daikonya, A.; Kitanaka, S., Triterpenoids from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and
Their Nitric Oxide Production‐Inhibitory and DPPH Radical‐Scavenging Activities.
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2007, 55, (1), 15‐18.
68. Jung, S. H.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, E. H.; Um, B. H., Aldose
Reductase and Advanced Glycation Endproducts Inhibitory Effect of
Phyllostachys nigra. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2007, 30, (8),
1569‐1572.
203
69. Choi, S.‐W.; Hur, N.‐Y.; Ahn, S.‐C.; Kim, D.‐S.; Lee, J.‐K.; Kim, D.‐O.; Park, S.‐K.;
Kim, B.‐Y.; Baik, M.‐Y., Isolation and structural determination of squalene
synthase inhibitor from Prunus mume fruit. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007, 17,
(12), 1970‐1975.
70. Salvi, A.; Carrupt, P.‐A.; Tillement, J.‐P.; Testa, B., Structural damage to proteins
caused by free radicals: asessment, protection by antioxidants, and influence of
protein binding. Biochemical Pharmacology 2001, 61, (10), 1237‐1242.
71. Xie, H.; Wang, T.; Matsuda, H.; Morikawa, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Tani, T., Bioactive
Constituents from Chinese Natural Medicines. XV. Inhibitory Effect on Aldose
Reductase and Structures of Saussureosides A and B from Saussurea medusa.
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2005, 53, (11), 1416‐1422.
72. Xiang, T.; Xiong, Q.‐B.; Ketut, A. I.; Tezuka, Y.; Nagaoka, T.; Wu, L.‐J.; Kadota, S.,
Studies on the Hepatocyte Protective Activity and the Structure‐Activity
Relationships of Quinic Acid and Caffeic Acid Derivatives from the Flower Buds
of Lonicera bournei. Planta Medica 2001, 67, (4), 322‐325.
73. Melzig, M. F. L., B.; Ciesielski, S., Pharmazie 2001, 56, (12), 967‐970.
74. Iwai, K.; Kishimoto, N.; Kakino, Y.; Mochida, K.; Fujita, T., In Vitro Antioxidative
Effects and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Seven Hydroxycinnamoyl
Derivatives in Green Coffee Beans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
2004, 52, (15), 4893‐4898.
75. Julian‐Ortiz, J. V. d.; Galvez, J.; Munoz‐Collado, C.; Garcia‐Domenech, R.;
Gimeno‐Cardona, C., Virtual Combinatorial Syntheses and Computational
Screening of New Potential Anti‐Herpes Compounds. Journal of Medicinal
Chemistry 1999, 42, (17), 3308‐3314.
76. Guo, Y.; Xiao, Z.; Wang, H.; Huang, T., Determination of organic acids in Fructus
204
mume by high performance liquid chromatography. Fenxi Huaxue 2004, 32,
(12), 1624‐1626.
77. Takahashi, K.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Ohtani, H.; Katsuki, T., Variation of fragrance
constituents in the leaves of Prunus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2006, 34, (2),
127‐135.
78. Wang, B.‐G.; Hong, X.; Li, L.; Zhou, J.; Hao, X.‐J., Chemical Constituents of Two
Chinese Magnoliaceae Plants, Tsoongiodendron odorum and Manglietiastrum
sinicum, and their Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation. Planta Medica 2000, 66,
(6), 511‐515.
79. Duan, H.; Takaishi, Y.; Momota, H.; Ohmoto, Y.; Taki, T., Immunosuppressive
constituents from Saussurea medusa. Phytochemistry 2002, 59, (1), 85‐90.
80. Wang, A.‐X.; Zhang, Q.; Jia, Z.‐J., Phenylpropanosids, lignans and other
constituents from Cremanthodium ellisii. Pharmazie 2004, 59, (11), 889‐892.
81. Adnyana, I. K.; Tezuka, Y.; Banskota, A. H.; Tran, K. Q.; Kadota, S.,
Hepatoportective Constituents of the Seeds of Combretum quadrangulare.
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2000, 23, (11), 1328‐1332.
82. Deng, J.‐Z.; Starck, S. R.; Hecht, S. M., DNA Polymerase Inhibitors from
Baeckea gunniana. Journal of Natural Products 1999, 62, (12), 1624‐1626.
83. Ryu, S. Y.; Oak, M.‐H.; Yoon, S.‐K.; Cho, D.‐I.; Yoo, G.‐S.; Kim, T.‐S.; Kim, K.‐M.,
Anti‐Allergic and Anti‐Inflammatory Triterpenes from the Herb of Prunella
vulgaris. Planta Medica 2000, 66, (4), 358‐360.
84. Kashiwada, Y.; Nagao, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Ikeshiro, Y.; Okabe, H.; Cosentino, L. M.;
Lee, K.‐H., Anti‐AIDS Agents 38. Anti‐HIV Activity of 3‐O‐Acyl Ursolic Acid
Derivatives. Journal of Natural Products 2000, 63, (12), 1619‐1622.
85. Tao, J.; Morikawa, T.; Toguchida, I.; Ando, S.; Matsuda, H.; Yoshikawa, M.,
205
Inhibitors of nitric oxide production from the bark of Myrica rubra: structures
of new biphenyl type diarylheptanoid glycosides and taraxerane type triterpene.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2002, 10, (12), 4005‐4012.
86. Na, M.; Yang, S.; He, L.; Oh, H.; Kim, B. S.; Oh, W. K.; Kim, B. Y.; Ahn, J. S.,
Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B by Ursane‐Type Triterpenes
Isolated from Symplocos paniculata. Planta Medica 2006, 72, (3), 261‐263.
87. Lee, T.‐H.; Juang, S.‐H.; Hsu, F.‐L.; Wu, C.‐Y., Triterpene Acids from the Leaves of
Planchonella duclitan (Blanco) Bakhuizan. Journal of the Chinese Chemical
Society 2005, 52, (6), 1275‐1280.
88. Banno, N.; Akihisa, T.; Tokuda, H.; Yasukawa, K.; Higashihara, H.; Ukiya, M.;
Watanabe, K.; Kimura, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Nishino, H., Triterpene Acids from the
Leaves of Perilla frutescens and Their Anti‐inflammatory and
Antitumor‐promoting Effects. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2004,
68, (1), 85‐90.
89. Mizushina, Y.; Hirota, M.; Murakami, C.; Ishidoh, T.; Kamisuki, S.; Shimazaki, N.;
Takemura, M.; Perpelescu, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, H.; Sugawara, F.; Koiwai, O.,
Some anti‐chronic inflammatory compounds are DNA polymerase λ‐specific
inhibitors. Biochemical Pharmacology 2003, 66, (10), 1935‐1944.
90. Deng, J.‐Z.; Starck, S. R.; Hecht, S. M., Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Freziera sp.
that inhibit DNA polymerase β. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2000, 8, (1),
247‐250.
91. Ma, C.‐M.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, M.; Kawahata, T.; Otake, T., Inhibitory Effects
of Triterpene–Azidothymidine Conjugates on Proliferation of Human
Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Its Protease. Chemical & Pharmaceutical
Bulletin 2002, 50, (6), 877‐880.
206
92. Tan, N.; Kaloga, M.; Radtke, O. A.; Kiderlen, A. F.; Oeksuez, S.; Ulubelen, A.;
Kolodziej, H., Abietane diterpenoids and triterpenoic acids from Salvia cilicica
and their antileishmanial activities. Phytochemistry 2002, 61, (8), 881‐884.
93. Yoshimura, H.; Sugawara, K.; Saito, M.; Saito, S.; Murakami, S.; Miyata, N.;
Kawashima, A.; Morimoto, S.; Gao, N.; Zhang, X.; Yang, J., In vitro TGF‐β1
Antagonistic Activity of Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids Isolated from
Clerodendranthus spicatus. Planta Medica 2003, 69, (7), 673‐675.
94. Jin, J. L.; Lee, S.; Lee, Y. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Heo, J. E.; Yun‐Choi, H. S., Platelet
Anti‐Aggregating Triterpenoids from the Leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus
and the Fruits of A. sessiliflorus. Planta Medica 2004, 70, (6), 564‐566.
95. Zhong, L.; Li, P.; Han, J.; Qu, G.; Guo, D., Structure‐Activity Relationships of
Saponins from Gleditsia sinensis in Cytotoxicity and Induction of Apoptosis.
Planta Medica 2004, 70, (9), 797‐802.
96. Utsunomiya, H.; Kawata, J.; Chanoki, W.; Shirakawa, N.; Miyazawa, M.,
Components of essential oil from woods of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. J. Oleo
Sci. 2005, 54, (11), 609‐612.
97. WHO, Supplementary Guidelines on GMP: Validation. In 2006; Vol. Appendix 4.
98. FDA, Draft Guidance for Industry: Analytical Procedures and Method Validation
‐ Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Documentation. In 2000.
99. ICH, Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. In 2005.
100. 行政院衛生署, 分析確效作業指導手冊. 2000.
101. Shinoda, Y.; Komura, H.; Homma, S.; Murata, M., Browning of model orange
juice solution: factors affecting the formation of decomposition products.
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2005, 69, (11), 2129‐2137.
102. Wong, D. W. S., Mechanism and theory in food chemistry. Van Nostrand
207
Reinhold: New York, 1989.
103. Masaru, W.; Yuichi, A.; Toru, I.; Ryo, N.; Hiroshi, I., Catalytic glucose and
fructose conversions with TiO2 and ZrO2 in water at 473K: Relationship
between reactivity and acid‐base property determined by TPD measurement.
Applied Catalysis A: General 2005, 295, 150‐156.
104. Antal Jr., M. J.; Leesomboon, T.; Mok, W. S.; Richards, G. N., Mechanism of
formation of 2‐furaldehyde from D‐xylose. Carbohydrate Research 1991, 217,
71‐85.
105. Shafizadeh, F.; Lai, Y. Z., Thermal degradation of
1,6‐Anhydro‐β‐D‐glucopyranose. J. Org. Chem. 1972, 37, (2), 278‐284.
106. Scheirs, J.; Camino, G.; Avidano, M.; Tumiatti, W., Origin of furanic compounds
in thermal degradation of cellulosic insulating paper. Journal of Applied
Polymer Science 1998, 69, 2541‐2547.
107. Cazor, A.; Deborde, C.; Moing, A.; Rolin, D.; This, H., Sucrose, Glucose, and
Fructose Extraction in Aqueous Carrot Root Extracts Prepared at Different
Temperatures by Means of Direct NMR Measurements. Journal of Agricultural
and Food Chemistry 2006, 54, (13), 4681‐4686.
108. Tømmeraas, K.; Varum, K. M.; Christensen, B. E.; Smidsrød, O., Preparation and
characterisation of oligosaccharides produced by nitrous acid depolymerisation
of chitosans. Carbohydrate Research 2001, 333, 137‐144.
109. Jun, M.; Shao, Y.; Ho, C.‐T.; Koetter, U.; Lech, S., Structural Identification of
Nonvolatile Dimerization Products of Glucosamine by Gas
Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry, Liquid Chromatography‐Mass
Spectrometry, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003, 51, (21), 6340‐6346.
208
110. Kabyemela, B. M.; Adschiri, T.; Malaluan, R. M.; Arai, K., Glucose and Fructose
Decomposition in Subcritical and Supercritical Water: Detailed Reaction
Pathway, Mechanisms, and Kinetics. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry
Research 1999, 38, (8), 2888‐2895.
111. Watanabe, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Iida, T.; Aida, T. M.; Levy, C.; Sue, K.; Inomata, H.,
Glucose reactions with acid and base catalysts in hot compressed water at 473
K. Carbohydrate Research 2005, 340, (12), 1925‐1930.
112. Cha, J. Y.; Hanna, M. A., Levulinic acid production based on extrusion and
pressurized batch reaction. Industrial Crops and Products 2002, 16, 109‐118.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔