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研究生:王之昀
研究生(外文):Wang,Chih-Yun
論文名稱:居民之社區依附及對觀光發展之知覺的研究~以高雄縣美濃鎮為例~
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Residents' Community Attachment and Perception of Tourism Development~The Case of Mei-Nong Town, Kaohsiung County~
指導教授:劉修祥劉修祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu,Hsiou-Hsiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:觀光與餐旅管理研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:社區依附居民觀光發展知覺
外文關鍵詞:Community attachmentResidentTourism development perception
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在觀光業發達的今日,許多離家返鄉的青年,將對故鄉的特殊情感,轉為積極投入社區建設及文化保存工作,政府亦隨之提倡地方文化活動,1999年高雄縣文化節「戀戀客鄉/情在美濃」的地方活動,使得越來越多的遊客前往美濃從事休閒觀光,且在南二高旗山支線通車後,交通便利之下湧入的觀光人潮,讓美濃鎮在人口外移與產業結構改變之中導入觀光,使商業有了一片新的生機。
然而,自1970年代起,由於觀光負面衝擊所啟發的社區概念,已引起各界關注「社區態度」此議題,為克服社區發展在觀光上所遇到的各類瓶頸,本研究以南部客家文化觀光中最具代表性的景點「美濃」為研究目標,以高雄縣美濃鎮為研究地點,限定以居民對當地發展觀光計畫的知覺、居民之社區依附作為觀光發展的研究依據,探討社區依附和觀光發展知覺之相關性,釐清觀光業在社區發展中所該扮演的角色,希冀本研究對未來政府與相關經營者欲於各地推展觀光計畫和地方活動能有所助益。
In the last 30 years, community perceptions of negative impacts from tourism have encouraged research from several different fields into community attitudes, with the goal of overcoming opposition to tourism development. Drawing on a study of Mei-Nong town, this article explores the relationship between community attachment existing through such bonds as friendship and kinship, and resident perception toward tourism development. We studied Mei-Nong town to understand the differences in perception toward tourism development among its neighborhoods, based on community attachment variables, and to explore the role of community attachment in predicting these perceptions, especially regarding residents of cultural residential districts. This research has implications for tourism planning in Mei-Nong town and other tourism cities with cultural residential districts.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
二、文獻回顧 3
2.1 研究基地概況 3
2.2 美濃鎮各時期的發展 5
2.2.1 清領時期:南部客家聚落與開墾的前線,形成宗族和團練為核心的農村發展型態 5
2.2.2 日治時期:空間聯繫與社會經濟的變革,成為經濟資源供給的角色 5
2.2.3 光復後迄今:社經與空間結構的轉變促使美濃地方意識的覺醒 6
2.3 地方依附感 10
2.3.1 地方、地方感與地方依附 10
2.3.2 地方依附的意涵 12
2.3.3 地方依附研究的範圍 12
2.3.4 地方依附感的構面 15
2.3.5 地方依附的測量 18
2.4社區依附(Community attachment) 22
2.4.1 社區意識(Sense of community) 22
2.4.2 社區依附的測量 23
2.5 觀光發展所影響之知覺 25
2.5.1 觀光發展之知覺的測量 31
2.5.2社區依附與觀光發展之知覺的關係 33
三、研究設計及實施 36
3.1 研究假設 36
3.2 問卷設計 37
3.2.1 居民之社區依附程度 37
3.2.2 居民對觀光發展之經濟面、社會文化面和環境面影響知覺 41
3.2.3 居民之社會經濟背景 46
3.3 研究範圍 47
3.3.1 研究對象與抽樣方法 47
3.3.2 預試發放 47
3.3.3 正式問卷發放 53
3.3.4 統計分析方法 54
四、研究結果及分析 56
4.1 居民之樣本特性描述 56
4.2 居民之社會經濟背景對於社區依附程度及觀光發展知覺之差異性分析 58
4.3 社區依附、觀光發展知覺影響之因素描述性統計 66
4.3.1 討論與分析 70
4.4 居民社區依附與對社區發展觀光之知覺的相關與影響程度 71
4.4.1 居民社區依附與對社區發展觀光之知覺相關分析 71
4.4.2 居民社區依附與對社區發展觀光之典型相關分析 73
五、結論與建議 76
5.1 結論 76
5.1.1 不同社會經濟背景的居民對於社區依附程度 76
5.1.2 不同社會經濟背景的居民對於觀光發展所影響之知覺 76
5.1.3 不同社區依附程度之居民對於觀光影響之知覺有影響 76
5.1.4 居民社區依附對觀光發展之知覺有影響 77
5.2 研究限制 77
5.3 研究建議 77
5.3.1 減少負面衝擊影響 77
5.3.2 居民特性差異作為觀光規劃之參考 78
5.3.3 居民社區依附差異作為觀光規劃之參考 78
5.3.4 整合相關單位的意見 78
5.3.5 提升當地觀光產業經營水平 78
5.3.6 鼓勵觀光發展結合在地文化 79
5.4 後續研究建議 79
5.4.1 加入居民過去參與觀光活動的頻率 79
5.4.2 於不同類型地區進行研究 79
5.4.3 結合深入質化研究 79
參考文獻 80
正式問卷 87
表目錄
表2-1 美濃鎮社會經濟變遷表 6
表2-2 美濃鎮2007年11月村里人口數 7
表2-3 美濃鎮各級產業人口數 8
表2-4 高雄縣觀光遊憩區遊客人次 8
表2-5 地方依附感問項 20
表2-6 五個面向之地方依附感 21
表2-7 學者研究影響社區依附程度的變數 24
表2-8 觀光發展所影響之經濟知覺 26
表2-9 觀光發展所影響之社會文化知覺 28
表2-10 觀光發展所影響之環境知覺 30
表2-11 學者研究觀光發展影響的知覺變數 32
表2-12 學者研究社區依附與觀光發展之知覺的結果與建議 34
表3-1 居民社區依附問項 38
表3-2 居民對社區發展觀光之知覺問項 42
表3-3 居民之社會經濟背景問項 46
表3-4 居民之社區依附項目及量表信度分析表 49
表3-5 居民對社區發展觀光之知覺項目及量表信度分析表 51
表3-6 問卷發放地點與份數 53
表4-1 樣本特性描述 56
表4-2 性別對社區依附t檢定 58
表4-3 性別對觀光發展之知覺影響t檢定 58
表4-4 居住觀光地與否對社區依附t檢定 60
表4-5 居住觀光地與否對觀光發展之知覺影響t檢定 60
表4-6 年齡對社區依附單因子變異數分析 61
表4-7 年齡對觀光發展之知覺影響單因子變異數分析 61
表4-8 個人月收入對社區依附單因子變異數分析 63
表4-9 個人月收入對觀光發展之知覺影響單因子變異數分析 63
表4-10 房屋自有年數對社區依附單因子變異數分析 64
表4-11 房屋自有年數對觀光發展之知覺影響單因子變異數分析 64
表4-12 居住美濃年數對社區依附單因子變異數分析 65
表4-13 居住美濃年數對觀光發展之知覺影響單因子變異數分析 65
表4-14 社區依附各因素問項描述性統計分析 67
表4-15 居民對社區發展觀光之知覺各因素問項描述性統計分析 69
表4-16 居民社區依附與對社區發展觀光之知覺相關分析 71
表4-17 居民社區依附與觀光發展所影響之知覺的典型相關分析 74
圖目錄
圖2-1 美濃鎮十九里位置圖 4
圖2-2 地方依附感之構面 18
圖3-1 研究架構圖 36
圖4-1 觀光勝地里別劃分圖 59
圖4-2 第一典型相關分析路徑圖 75
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