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研究生:楊振昇
研究生(外文):Chen-Shenh Yang
論文名稱:互動式虛擬實境的空間感知影響因素之研究以街道空間為例
論文名稱(外文):A study of the space perceptivity with interactive virtual-reality: Case study of streetspace
指導教授:張效通張效通引用關係徐哲文徐哲文引用關係
指導教授(外文):作者未提供作者未提供
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:建築與都市防災研究所
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:都市規劃學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:176
中文關鍵詞:Sketch UpGoogle Earth虛擬環境虛擬實境
外文關鍵詞:Sketch UpGoogle EarthVirtual EnvironmentVirtual Reality
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
電腦技術一直是目前主導虛擬環境發展的主要關鍵,其中虛擬實境(Virtual Reality; VR)則是可以模擬出即時變化的三度互動空間之動態環境,讓使用者可以增進與環境之間的互動,然而使用者對空間感知則是影響尋路行為與尋路策略關鍵因素之一。但許多學者只致力於創新技術層面探討,有關虛擬環境適用於哪些不同的訓練、最佳應用方式為何、以及使用者本身在虛擬環境的表現差異,卻較少獲得關注。因此,引發本研究欲探討虛擬環境其空間建構,而使用者在尋路過程中影響空間感知之主要因素為何。因此,引發本研究欲探討虛擬環就空間建構,對於使用者尋路認知之真正影響,本研究主要目的即在利用軟體輔助建構完整之三維建物資料庫,打造虛擬的三維立體台北市信義計畫區,並進一步探討建物模型資料庫與Google Earth展示平台結合之作業方式,以做為使用者尋路之探討。希冀籍由Google Earth展示平台達到台灣網路三維立體環境加值之目的,並供未來做為三維空間資訊相關平台連結發展之應用。
對於世界先進各國對於三維GIS 資訊的努力建置,我國建立三維空間資訊的需求實已刻不容緩。本研究旨在探討,利用軟體輔助建構完整之三維建物資料庫,打造虛擬的三維立體台北市信義計畫區,並進一步探討建物模型資料庫與Google Earth展示平台結合之作業方式,以做為使用者尋路之探討。實驗建構主要採用2006年Google Earth發表的Google Sketch Up 軟體,軟體建立建物三維模型,與Google Earth 平台結合,達到三維資訊建構之目標。本研究實驗分為兩階段第一階段進行受測者空間能力高低之分類後,第二階段進行尋路績效之受測,透過分類後之受測對於高度及水平垂直視角之比較了解高空間能力者在使用垂直水平檢視視角或是視角海拔高度視角是沒有差別的,無論在何種視角下,高空間能力者皆能順暢的操作。而低空間能力者較適合使用垂直水平檢視視角,根據實驗結果顯示,低空間能力者在垂直水平檢視視角比起在視角海拔高度視角下,尋路時間明顯的下降許多,並與高空間能力者在垂直水平檢視視角下的尋路時間並無差異。
Computer technology is the key factor of leading virtual environmental development. Virtual Reality (VR) is the computer technology which can imitate the instant change of dynamic environment in the 3D interactive space. Virtual Reality improves the mutual interaction between user and environment. However user’s perception of space is one of the main factors influencing the way finding behavior and tactic. Yet many scholars concentrate their efforts only on innovating new technology; they do not pay attention to those topics such as: “Which types of training does virtual environment suites the most?” “What is the best application method of virtual environment?” “What is user’s behavior diversity in virtual environment?” Therefore, we intend to investigate the space structure of virtual environment in addition to the major factor which influences the space perception during procedure of user’s way finding. Thus, the situation triggers this research to focus on exploring space the construction for virtual environment and real influence on users'' cognition of route searching. This research is mainly purposed to create complete 3D building database with the aid of computer software. The virtual 3D Taipei Xinyi Plan Zone is created and further exploring effort is spent on building model database with operation ways integrated with Google Earth demonstration platforms available for users'' research on route searching. It is expected that by means of Google Earth demonstrating platforms, the purpose to create value-adding Taiwan Network 3D environment can be reached with the reference accessible for upcoming linkage development on relevant 3D space information platforms in future.
Regarding the effort to create 3D GIS information spent by advanced nations globally, it is quite imminent for our nation to create 3D space information. This research is purposed to create complete 3D building database with the aid of computer software. The virtual 3D Taipei Xinyi Plan Zone is created and further effort is explored on building model database with the operation ways integrated with Google Earth demonstration platforms available for users'' research on route searching. The experiment is mainly operated with the computer software - Google Sketch Up proposed by Google Earth in 2006 and it is integrated with Google Earth platforms with the goals to create 3D information structure reachable. This experiment is divided into 2 phases. After the space sensing capability of experiment respondents is classified during the 1st phase, the performance of route searching is tested during the 2nd phase. After tests, experiment respondents'' knowledge to height and horizontal-n-vertical view angles shows no variance between those experiment respondents with higher space sensing capability. Whatever view angles held by excellent space sensing people, they can perform operation nimbly. It is actually more suitable for inferior space sensing people to operate in horizontal-n-vertical view angles. Regarding inferior space sensing people with vertical-horizontal viewing angles, as experiment results shown, inferior space sensing people show remarkably shorter duration for route searching in horizontal-n-vertical view angles. In addition, they show no variance from the route searching duration for people with excellent space sensing capability in horizontal-n-vertical view angles.
中文摘要                    I
英文摘要                    II
目 錄                     III
圖目錄                     V
表目錄                     VI

第一章 緒論                  1
 第一節 研究背景與動機             1
 第二節 研究目的                6
 第三節 研究範圍及限制             7
 第四節 研究流程                8
第二章 文獻探討                10
 第一節 虛擬實境               10
  一、何謂虛擬實境              10
  二、虛擬實境應用              19
  三、虛擬實境現今應用趨勢          23
  四、空間虛擬化建構             25
 第二節 虛擬環境               28
  一、何謂虛擬環境              28
  二、虛擬環境與尋路研究的關係        30
  三、虛擬環境的導覽問題           32
  四、虛擬環境導覽的相關研究與成果      34
 第三節 數位城市               36
  一、數位城市簡介              36
  二、城市空間                39
  二、地理資訊系統              41
 第三節 空間感知               47
  一、認知地圖                47
  二、空間知識                49
  三、空間知識的獲取方式           53
  四、空間知識的測量方式           55
 第四節 尋路                 57
  一、尋路的定義               57
  二、尋路行為                59
  三、影響尋路的因素             63
  四、尋路策略傾向差異            73
  五、尋路行為的決策過程           75
  六、幫助尋路決策的要素           76
  七、國內有關導覽輔助相關研究        77
  八、國外有關導覽輔助相關研究        78
 第五節 小結                 80
第三章 研究設計與步驟             81
 第一節 研究架構               81
 第二節 研究限制               83
 第三節 研究工具               85
 第四節 實驗設計               90
 第五節 實驗流程               94
第四章 研究分析與討論             98
 第一節 研究相關變項             98
 第二節 樣本資料描述統計           101
 第三節 實驗結果分析             104
 第四節 小結                 111
第五章、 結論與建議              113
 第一節 結論                 113
 第二節 研究貢獻               115
 第三節 後續建議               116

參考文獻:                  117

附錄一:空間能力量表問卷           127
附錄二:獨立樣本雙因子變異數分析輸出報表   145
附錄三:獨立樣本T檢定分析輸出報表       149
附錄四:Google earth與Sketch Up        150
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四、期刊
張春蘭,1992,〈地圖設計法則之探討〉,《中華民國地圖學會會刊》,第20期,p.29-39。
許子凡,2004,〈從空間概念分析虛擬實境的尋路〉,《設計學研究》,第7卷,第2期,頁43-57。
陳建雄、張文智、張文德,2007,〈尋路績效自我評鑑量表之發展〉,《中測驗學刊》,第54輯,第2期,p.355-376。
Burgess, E. W. (1923) The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project. In Proceedings of the American Sociological Society. Vol. 18. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Harris, Chauncey C. and Edward Ullman, 1945,”The Nature of Cities,”Annals of Political and Social Science, Vol.242, pp.7-17.
Appleyard, D. (1970). Styles and methods of structuring a city. Environment and Behaviour, 2, 101-117.
Evans, G.W., 1980. Environmental cognition. Psychological Bulletin 88, 259-287.
Baker, F. B. (1981). Log-linear, logit-linear models: A didactic. Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 75-102.
Thorndyke, P. W. and Hayes-Roth, B. (1982) Differences in spatial knowledge acquired from maps and navigation. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 560-589.
Goldin, S.E., Thorndyke, P.W. (1982). Simulating navigation for spatial knowledge acquisition. Human Factors 24 (4), 457-471.
Ingwersen, P. (1992). Information retrieval interaction. London: Taylor Graham. Available at: http://www.db.dk/pi/iri/files/Ingwersen_IRI.pdf
Chauncy D. Harris and Edward L. 1945, Ullman .The Nature of Cities. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 242, No. 1, 7-17.
MONTELLO, D. 1991. The Measurement of Cognitive Distance: Methods and Construct Validity. Journal of Environmental Psychology 11, 2, 101-122.
Arthur, P. & Passini, R. 1992, Wayfinding: People, signs, and architecture. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Patrick E. O''Neil. (1992). The SB-tree: An Index-Sequential Structure for High-Performance Sequential Access. Acta Informatica, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 241-265.
Barbara Tversky, Franklin, Taylor, and Bryant (1994). Spatial mental models from descriptions. Journal of the American Society for Information Science.
Lawton, Carol A. (1994). Gender Differences in Way-Finding Strategies: Relationship to Spatial Ability and Spatial Anxiety. Sex Roles, v30 n11-12 p765-79.
Magliano, J. P., Cohen, R., Allen, G. A., & Rodrigue, J. R. (1995). The impact of a wayfinder''s goal on learning a new environment: Different types of spatial knowledge as goals. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 65-75.
Witmer, B. G., Bailey, J. H., Knerr, B. W., & Parsons, K. C. (1996). Virtual spaces and real world places: Transfer of route knowledge. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45, 413--428.
Schneider, L.F., Taylor, H.A., 1999. How do you get there from here? Mental representations of route descriptions. Applied Cognitive Psychology 13, 415-441.
Denis, M., Pazzaglia, F., Cornoldi, C., and Bertolo, L. (1999). Spatial Discourse and Navigation: An Analysis of Route Directions in the City of Venice. Applied Cognitive Science 13, 145-174.
Hunt, E., Waller, D., 1999. Orientation and wayfinding: a review. ONR technical report N00014-96-0380, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA.
Vinson, N. G. (1999). Design guidelines for landmarks to support navigation in Virtual Environments. Retrieved May 10, 2003 from CiteSeer database on the World Wide Web: http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cs.
Allen D. 1999, Mediator analysis: An overview of recent research on carers supporting people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 43, pp. 325-39.
Baker S. & Buckler K. 1997, Health Promoting Hospitals Implementation Manual, pp. 6-37. Queensland Health, Australia.
Dodge, M., Smith, A. and Doyle, S.: 1997, "Virtual Cities on theWorld-WideWeb Towards a Virtual City Information System", Urban Science, 6, 26-29.
Dabbs, J. M. J., Chang, E.-L., Strong, R. A., & Milun, R. (1998). Spatial ability, navigation strategy, and geographic knowledge among men and women. Evolution & Human Behavior, 19(2), 89-98.
Moffat SD, Hampson E, Hatzipantelis M. (1998). Navigation in a “virtual” maze: sex differences and correlation with psychometric measures of spatial ability in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior.19 (2):73–87.
Chaomei Chen, Mary Czerwinski, Robert Macredie, Individual differences in virtual environments-introduction and overview, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, v.51 n.6, p.499-507, April 2000.
Conroy, R.A. 2001, Wayfinding in the real and virtual world. In Spatial navigationin immersive virtual environments.
Chen, J. L. and Stanney, K. M. 1999, ATheoretical Model of Wayfinding in Virtual Environments: Proposed Strategies for Navigational Aiding, Presence, 8, pp. 671-685.
Elvins, T. T. 1997, Virtually lost in virtual worlds-wayfinding without a cognitive map. Computer Graphics, 31(3), pp.15-17.
Garling, T., Book, A., & Lindberg, E. 1984, Cognitive Mapping of Large-scale Environments. Environment and Behavior, 16, pp. 3-34.
Golledge, R. G. (1999). Human Wayfinding and Cognitive Maps. In R. G. Golledge (Ed.), Wayfinding behavior : cognitive mapping and other spatial processes. pp. 1-45. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Denis, M., Pazzaglia, F., Cornoldi, C., and Bertolo, L. (1999). Spatial Discourse and Navigation: An Analysis of Route Directions in the City of Venice. Applied Cognitive Science 13, 145-174.
Prestopnik, J.L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2000). The relations among wayfinding strategy use, sense of direction, sex, familiarity, and wayfinding ability. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 177-191.
PAZZAGLIA F., DE BENI R. Strategies of processing spatial information in survey and landmark-centred individuals. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 13 (4), pp. 493-508, 2001.
Witmer, B.G., Sadowski, W.J., & Finkelstein, N.M. (2002). VE-based training strategies for acquiring survey knowledge. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11, 1-18.
Lawton, C. A., & Kallai, J. (2002). Gender differences in wayfinding strategies and anxiety about wayfinding: A cross-cultural comparison. Sex Roles, 47, 389-401.
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Jansen-Osmann, P. 2002, Using desktop virtual environments to investigate the role of landmarks. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(4), pp. 427-436.
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Cornell, E. H., Sorenson, A., & Mio, T. (2003). Human sense of direction and wayfinding performance. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 93, 402–428.
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Prestopnik, J. L., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2000). The relations among Wayfinding strategy use, sense of direction, sex, familiarity, and wayfinding ability. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 177-191.
May, A.J., Ross, T., Bayer, S. H., Tarkiainen, M.J.(2003).Pedestrian navigation aids: information requirements and design implications“; In Personal und Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 7, No. 6, Springer, London.
Parush, A., & Berman, D. 2004, Navigation and orientation in 3D user interfaces: the impact of navigation aids and landmarks. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61, pp. 375-395.
Ruddle, R.A., Payne, S.J., & Jones, D.M. 1997, Navigating buildings in "desk-top" virtual environments: Experimental investigations using extended navigational experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 3, pp. 143-159.
Stanney, K. M., Mourant, R. R., & Kennedy, R. S. 1998, Human factors issues in virtual environments: A review of the literature. Presence, 7(4), pp. 327-351.
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Witmer, B. G., Bailey, J. H., & Knerr, B. W. 1996, Virtual space and real world places: transfer of route knowledge. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45, pp. 413-428.

五、網路資料
台灣船舶網 船舶虛擬實境
(http://www.ship.org.tw/vr/index.asp)
看好多樣化應用 瑞典積極推動虛擬化技術研發
(http://www.eettaiwan.com/ART_8800493212_876045_NT_8b08979c.HTM)
台北市政府地理資訊網 Google Earth實驗計畫-臺北市3D立體建築物
(http://www.gis.taipei.gov.tw/cgi-bin/SM_theme?page=46a01c5a)
科技新知-Wii揮舞「魔棒」技術,打造電玩遊戲新概念。DigiTimes.comhttp://tech.digitimes.com.tw/ShowNews.aspx?zCatId=412&zNotesDocId=9A9BF284545A9C69482571FD00551EBA
資策會資訊市場情報中心(MIC)。滿足智慧型消費,台灣購物網站朝七大趨勢發展。http://www.eettaiwan.com/ART_8800476713_675327_NT_ebe64b18.HTM
New York Times. Coming Soon: Nothing Between You and Your Machine. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/09/business/09stream.html
Gizmodo.Daylight-Hotel Concept Keeps Depression at Bay. http://gizmodo.com/gadgets/fancy/daylight-hotel-concept-keeps-depression-at-bay-318439.php
Avielon Co.仮想試着ソフト『AWASEBA. http://www.awaseba.com/
Exit Reality. View any web page in 3d... every website is now a virtual world | Virtual Worlds | Lively 3D Chat | Lively Virtual World | Lively Avatars. http://www.exitreality.com/
George Leopold. For Sweden''s planners, visualization''s the real deal. http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=204400361
Helsinki Arena. http://www.arenanet.fi/
Google Map/Earth (2005). http://earth.google.com/
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