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研究生:范珮禎
研究生(外文):Pei-Chen Fan
論文名稱:歐盟指令WEEE/RoHS下產品減廢設計考量因素之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Product Design for Waste Minimization under WEEE/RoHS
指導教授:杜蕙生
指導教授(外文):Maria H. Tu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:國際事務研究所碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:產品綠色設計產品使用後策略全球化WEEE/RoHS產品減廢設計層級分析法
外文關鍵詞:Analysis Hierarchy ProcessEnd of life strategyGreen product designGlobalizationDesign for waste minimizationWEEE/RoHS
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電子產品在科技匯流與創新訴求下,將多種功能整合於一項商品中,加上元件微小化之優勢,產品體積益加縮小,而能充分應用在生活的各層面中,使得產品使用的總量也不斷攀升。再加上產業技術更新速度加劇,縮短了生命週期,亦使得產品汰換率升高,衍生出大量廢棄物。有鑑於此,歐盟訂立WEEE/RoHS,強調對於廢棄電子電機產品的處置,考量可回收及再生利用,並輔以有毒物質的廢棄處置之管制,兩者互相配合,發揮最佳效益。
WEEE/RoHS主要規範對象為電子電機產品之生產者,並要求其對產品廢棄後之處理以及有毒物質的禁用負起責任,對於銷歐之產品造成相當大的衝擊,因此本研究針對電子產業進行實證研究,並針對產品別和部門別做細部探究,以了解WEEE/RoHS對產品減廢設計準則之重要性比較。
本研究透過AHP層級分析法實證結果歸納出電子產業在考量產品減廢設計時,兩兩成對比較之重要性排序為延長產品服務、材料再生利用、廢棄處理、產品再使用。進一步針對每一項衡量構面進行評比,在考量延長產品服務時,重要性排序為產品耐用設計、模組化設計、避免短暫流行產品,而對材料再生利用而言,以材料配適性最為重要,減少材料種類、避用化合物次之,在廢棄處理下,依序為集中管理有毒物質最為重要、可分離有毒物質、標示有毒物質,最後,在產品再使用方面,簡化產品結構為最重要之策略準則,產品易拆解、產品易清潔次之。
Due to rapid development of technology and globalization, the electrical and electronic products and components innovate tend to be smaller in size and provide more convenience in our daily life. It results in shortening the product life cycle and also increasing a lot of wastes. Thus, The European Union established two directives known as WEEE/RoHS. It makes products more feasible to reuse, recycle, and recovery, also low toxicity in order to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.
All companies that make, sell, or distribute products into European Union countries with enacted laws must comply with WEEE/RoHS. Producers will be responsible for taking back and recycling electrical and electronic equipment. Thus, this study focused on electronic industry, and also analyzed the priority of product design for waste minimization strategic criteria.
The study concludes the priority of various product designs for waste minimization strategic criteria; it is prioritized as a long service life, recycling of the material, environmentally sound disposal and reuse of the product through AHP analysis. Furthermore, the empirical survey measures individual criteria. For a long service life, the importance of long technical functionality, modular design structure and design never out of date are decreased gradually. For recycling of the material, the importance of low number of connection, low material variety and avoidance of compound materials are decreased gradually. For environmentally sound disposal, centralization of hazardous substances, separable connections between hazardous with other substances and marking of hazardous substances are decreased gradually. For reuse of the product, simple design structures, easy to separate connections non-destructively and easy to clean are decreased gradually.
圖目錄.........................................................................................viii
表目錄............................................................................... ix
第一章 緒論.................................................................. 1
第一節 研究背景與動機............................................... 1
第二節 研究目的...................................................... 3
第三節 研究範圍與流程.............................................. 3
第二章 文獻探討......................................................... 5
第一節 歐盟環保指令............................................. 5
第二節 綠色設計.....................................................18
第三節 生命週期......................................................26
第四節 產品減廢設計..................................................30
第三章 研究設計與方法................................................................43
第一節 研究架構.......................................................43
第二節 研究變數.......................................................45
第三節 層級分析法....................................................48
第四節 研究對象及抽樣方法.........................................54
第四章 實證分析與結果..............................................................57
第一節 衡量構面分析............................................................57
第二節 策略準則分析..............................................................61
壹 延長產品服務............................................................61
貳 產品再使用...............................................................64
參 材料再生利用............................................................67
肆 廢棄處理..................................................................70
第五章 結論與建議...................................................................73
第一節 研究結論................................................................73
第二節 管理意涵................................................................77
第三節 研究限制與未來研究方向.................................................79
參考文獻........................................................................................81
附錄
A產品減廢設計問卷.............................................................90
壹、中文部份

一、書籍
經濟部中小企業處,〈中小企業因應歐盟環保指令的經濟分析〉,《2006年中小企業白皮書》。台北,民95,頁152-181。
杜瑞澤,《產品永續設計:綠色設計理論與實務》。台北:亞太圖書,民91。
林敬智,《歐盟WEEE之運作情形現況》。台北:工業技術研究院,民94。
洪德欽,〈WTO有關環境與貿易之規範〉,《WTO法律與政策專題研究》。台北:學林文化事業公司,民91年3月,頁171-240。
陳名揚譯,刀根薰著,《競賽式決策制定法-AHP入門》。台北:建宏,民82。
施勵行,《資源再生與永續性社會》。台北:俊傑,民91。
經濟部工業局,《中華民國減廢白皮書》。台北,民85。
鄭源錦,《綠色設計手冊》。台北:中華民國對外貿易發展協會,民84。

二、期刊
林幸嫻,〈環境化設計新思維〉,《永續產業發展》,第6期,民91年12月,頁41-48。
林敬智、王壬與翁啟超,〈由國際環保規範檢視資訊產品可回收之設計〉,《永續產業發展》,第13期,民93年3月,頁35-42。
陳潤明、王瀅琇,〈電子電機產品綠色革命之背景探討〉,《永續產業發展》,第8期,民92年4月,頁69-82。
郭財吉,〈淺談環境保護與工程設計-綠色工程設計與綠色行銷〉,《科學發展月刊》,第29卷,第10期,民90年7月,頁724-728。
楊致行,〈歐盟WEEE指令與相關回收條件分析〉,《環境工程會刊》,第16期,民94年6月,頁12-16。
楊致行,〈歐盟電機電子環保指令對我國產業的衝擊與因應〉,《永續產業發展》,第16期,民93年8月,頁10-27。
張家淵、黃顯凱、楊仲弘與林琦桓,〈電子廠商因應綠色設計潮流情形之初探〉,《電子檢測與品管》,第60期,民93年10月,頁79-85。
張菀倫,〈歐盟環保指令對我國電子電機產業之衝擊與因應〉,《永續產業發展》,第21期,民94年8月,頁4-21。
鄧振源、曾國雄,〈層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用-上〉,《中國統計學報》,第27卷第6期,民78年6月,頁5-22。
鄧振源、曾國雄,〈層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用-下〉,《中國統計學報》,第27卷第7期,民78年7月,頁1-19。
蔡慧君,〈論國際環境法架構下之國家主權意涵〉,《台北大學法學論叢》,55期,民94年6月,頁1-54。
顏秀慧,〈歐盟環保指令-上〉,《綠色生產力》,第6期,民95年10月,頁14-16。
顏秀慧,〈歐盟環保指令-下〉,《綠色生產力》,第7期,民96年1月,頁13-15。

三、論文
吳俊男,〈類神經網路於產品壽命終了時之處理策略分析及產品再使用設計改善之研究〉,碩士論文,國立成功大學機械工程學系,民91。
徐福麟,〈綠色設計策略中產品生命週期評估模式之研究〉,碩士論文,大葉大學設計研究所,民88。
陳百盛、葉子明與許績興,〈以模糊層級與灰關聯分析法建構新產品環保性設計之評估模式〉,國科會研究計畫編號NSC90-2218-E-231-002。
陳苑菁,〈以AHP建構同步工程之綠色設計開發程序-以消費性電子產品為例〉,碩士論文,大葉大學設計研究所,民93。
楊采芬,〈因應歐盟環保指令WEEE/RoHS產品環境化設計之研究〉,碩士論文,銘傳大學國際事務研究所,民95。
黃義俊,〈企業的綠色管理之整合性模式的實證研究─以化工與機電產業為例〉,博士論文,國立中山大學企業管理學系,民80,頁17-18。
黃璿彬,〈整合生命週期評估與成本模式的綠色產品設計方法之研究〉,碩士論文,國立成功大學機械工程研究所,民88。
鄭欣怡,〈歐盟指令WEEE/RoHS下對企業綠色管理決策之影響〉,碩士論文,銘傳大學國際事務研究所,民95。
賴義方,〈綠色供應鏈中綠色供應商之評估-以PCB供應商為例〉,碩士論文,國立成功大學資源工程學系,民93。
鍾雄宇,〈清潔生產科技施行成效與其關鍵成功因素之研究〉,碩士論文,淡江大學管理科學學系,民89。

四、網路
<中華民國行業分類標準>,中華民國統計資料網,http://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=2203&ctNode=1309,民80。
<RoHS (危害物質禁用指令)>,中小企業RoHS資訊網,http://green.pidc.org.tw/rohs/instruction_RoHS.aspx,民90。
李保寧,<國外綠色文明的十二種趨勢-席捲全球的綠色浪潮>,GLOBE環保在線,http://theglobe.ep.net.cn/big5library/huanbao112.htm,民88。
林蔚文,<歐盟WEEE及RoHS六大列管項目最新規範>,台灣區電機電子工業同業公會,http://www.teema.org.tw/publish/moreinfo.asp?autono=2194, 民90。
黃國寶,<環境管理系統持續改善工具-環境化設計介紹>,工安環保報導,http://she.moeaidb.gov.tw/issue12/subject12-1.htm,民91。


貳、西文部份

(I)Books
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Fiksel, J., Design for Environment: Creating Eco-Efficient Product and Processes, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, International Book Company, 1996.
Gibbons, H. J., Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment, Congress of the United States of Technology Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
Giudice, F., G. La Rosa, and A. Risitano, Product design for the environment: a life cycle approach, Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
Saaty, T. L., The Analytic Hierarchy Process, New York: McGraw Hill Company, 1980.
Rose, C. M., Design for Environment: A Method for Formulating Product End-of-life Strategies, Dissertation Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, 2000.
UNEP, ECODESIGN: A Promising Approach to Sustainable Production and Consumption. Paris: United Nations Environment Programme, 1997.
Wise, K.L. and D.J. Trantolo, Processes Engineering for Pollution Control Waste Minimization, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994.

(II)Periodicals
Alting, L. and J. Jorgensen, “The Life Cycle Concept as a Basis for Sustainable Industrial Production,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1993, pp.163-167.
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Argument, L., F. Lettice, and T. Bhamra, “Environmental Conscious Design: Matching Industry Requirements with Academic Research,” Design Studies, Vol. 19, 1998, pp.63-80.
Bras, B., “Incorporating Environmental Issues in Product Design and Realization,” Industry and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, 1997, pp.7-13.
Gauthier, C., “Measuring Corporate Social and Environmental Performance: The Extended Life-Cycle Assessment,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 59, 2005, pp.199-206.
Goggin, P., “An Appraisal of eco-labeling from a Design perspective,” Design Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1994, pp.459-477.
Gottberg, A., J. Morris, S. Pollard, C. Mark-Herbert, and M. Cook, “Producer Responsibility, Waste Minimization and the WEEE Directive: Case Studies in Eco-design from the European Lighting Sector,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 359, 2006, pp.38-56.
Gungor, A. and S. M. Gupta, “Issue in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery: a Survey,” Computer and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 36, 1999, pp.811-853.
Hart, S. L., “Beyond Greening: Strategies for a Sustainable World,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 1997, pp.67-76.
Holt, K., “Management and Organization through 100 years,” Technovation, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1999, pp.135-140.
Horvath, A., C. T. Hendrickson, L. B. Lave, and F. C. McMichael, “Performance Measurement for Environmentally-Conscious Manufacturing,” ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 2-2, 1995, pp.855-860.
King, A. M., S. C. Burgess, W. Ijomah, and C. A. McMahon, “Reducing Waste: Repair, Recondition, Remanufacture or Recycle?” Sustainable Development, Vol. 14, 2006, pp.257-267.
Kobayashi, H., “Strategic Evaluation of Eco-products: a Product Life Cycle Planning Methodology,” Research in Engineering Design, Vol. 16, 2005, pp.1-16.
Narasimhan, R., “An Analytical Approach to Supplier Selection,” Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1983, pp.27-32.
Navinchandra, D., “Design for Environmentability,” Design Theory and Methodology, Vol. 31, 1991, pp.119-124.
Nissen, U., “A Methodology for the Development of Cleaner Product: The Ideal-eco-product Approach,” Journal of Cleaner production, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1995, pp.83-87.
Saaty, T. L. and E.H. Forman, “The Hierarchon: A Dictionary of Hierarchies,” AHP Series Vo. 5, RWS Publications, 1996, pp.496
Sarkis, J., “Evaluating Environmentally Conscious Business Practices,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1998, pp.159-174.
Sarkis, J., “Manufacturing Strategy and Environmental Consciousness,” Technovation, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1995, pp.79-97.
Srivastava, S. K. and R. K. Srivastava, “Managing product returns for reverse logistics,” International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2006, pp.524-546.
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Watkins, R. D. and B. Granoff, “Introduction to Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing,” International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing, Vol. 1, 1992, pp.5-11.
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Zang, H. C., C. K. Tsai, and L. Huitian, “Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing: A State-of-the-Art Survey,” Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 16, No. 5, 1997, pp.352-971.
Zust, R. and R. Wagner, “Approach to the Identification and Quantification of Environmental Effects during Product Life,” Annals of CIRP, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1992, pp.473-476.

(III)Conference Papers
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Fiksel, J. and K. Wapman, “How to Design for Environment and Minimize Life Cycle Cost,” Internationa Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, IEEE, May 1994, pp.75-80.
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Rose, C. M., A. Stevels, and K. Ishii, “A New Approach to End of Life Design Advisor (ELDA)”, International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, IEEE, 2000, pp.99-104.
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