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研究生:莫阿里
研究生(外文):Ali Muhyidin
論文名稱:Social Construction on Environmental Issue: A Case of the Claim-Makers of Indonesia Facing Global Warming
論文名稱(外文):Social Construction on Environmental Issue: A Case of the Claim-Makers of Indonesia Facing Global Warming
指導教授:劉廣華劉廣華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nathan K.H. LIU
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:國際事務研究所碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:ConstructivismEnvironmental PoliticsIndonesia
外文關鍵詞:IndonesiaEnvironmental PoliticsConstructivism
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Responses on global warming have spread from international to national. Potential conflicts during negotiation and managing the issue are inevitable, especially between national interest and the common international strategy. Some countries have responded actively while others have been passively or even hostile. The different perception of threat has become a consideration.

The research uses constructivist as analytic tool. The research focuses on identification of Indonesia claim makers and their responses towards global warming. It is assumed that each of claim makers has different understanding about global warming. Their differences influence their attitude in promoting global warming as well as the justification for demanding a taken action.

Using constructivist as analytic tool becomes essential for three reasons, (1) it provides understanding of the preferences in domestic area which is practiced in international arena; (2) it expresses the problem as a product of dynamic social process definition, negotiation, and legitimacy; (3) it helps to recognize the context of the problem within a framework of cultural values and social interaction.

The research used qualitative approach. The data were collected in ways. The primary data were collected through semi structure interview on member of parliament, redactor of mass media, NGOs activist, and academician. Additionally, the secondary data were gathered through related references including books, journal articles, rules and laws, research findings, and articles from internet.

The research finds that there are two factors that influence the Government of Indonesia (GoI) facing global warming, namely internal and external factors. The dynamic among national interests, regional, and international concerns have forced the GoI to be more active in anticipating global warming impacts. The research finds that national interests are more likely giving more pressure to the GoI in responding the issues, instead of international pressure.

Ironically, global warming has not been seen as a threat that has urgency to be tackled immediately. The GoI has faced problem in budget, bureaucracy, and leadership. The claim makers of Indonesia have same opinion that the understanding followed by the increasing of awareness on global warming should be prioritized in the government agendas.

The research results in three recommendations. First, as part of theory recommendation, there should be more researches that observe different type of identities. Second, regime building and the strengthening of regime effectiveness are needed. Third, in national level, a special exhibition aimed to raise public awareness of global warming is required.
Responses on global warming have spread from international to national. Potential conflicts during negotiation and managing the issue are inevitable, especially between national interest and the common international strategy. Some countries have responded actively while others have been passively or even hostile. The different perception of threat has become a consideration.

The research uses constructivist as analytic tool. The research focuses on identification of Indonesia claim makers and their responses towards global warming. It is assumed that each of claim makers has different understanding about global warming. Their differences influence their attitude in promoting global warming as well as the justification for demanding a taken action.

Using constructivist as analytic tool becomes essential for three reasons, (1) it provides understanding of the preferences in domestic area which is practiced in international arena; (2) it expresses the problem as a product of dynamic social process definition, negotiation, and legitimacy; (3) it helps to recognize the context of the problem within a framework of cultural values and social interaction.

The research used qualitative approach. The data were collected in ways. The primary data were collected through semi structure interview on member of parliament, redactor of mass media, NGOs activist, and academician. Additionally, the secondary data were gathered through related references including books, journal articles, rules and laws, research findings, and articles from internet.

The research finds that there are two factors that influence the Government of Indonesia (GoI) facing global warming, namely internal and external factors. The dynamic among national interests, regional, and international concerns have forced the GoI to be more active in anticipating global warming impacts. The research finds that national interests are more likely giving more pressure to the GoI in responding the issues, instead of international pressure.

Ironically, global warming has not been seen as a threat that has urgency to be tackled immediately. The GoI has faced problem in budget, bureaucracy, and leadership. The claim makers of Indonesia have same opinion that the understanding followed by the increasing of awareness on global warming should be prioritized in the government agendas.

The research results in three recommendations. First, as part of theory recommendation, there should be more researches that observe different type of identities. Second, regime building and the strengthening of regime effectiveness are needed. Third, in national level, a special exhibition aimed to raise public awareness of global warming is required.
Abstract iv
Acknowledgements v
Contents vi
List of Figures and Tables viii
List of Abbreviations ix

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Research Objective and Arguments 7
1.3 Conceptual Framework 8
1.4 Research Significances 11
1.5 Structure of Thesis 11

2. EXPLAINING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS:THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Realism and Environmental Politics 17
2.3 Liberal Institutionalism (Neoliberalism) and Environmental Politics 23
2.4 Global Warming and the Construction of Uncertainty 26
2.5 Toward an Understanding of Construction Environmental Issue 29
2.6 Conclusion 34

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Data Resources 35
3.3 Data Analysis 37
3.4 Limitation of the Research 39

4. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN INDONESIA 40
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 General Impacts Related to Global Warming in Indonesia 41
4.3 Economic Impacts 47
4.4 Social – Economic Impacts 54
4.5 Conclusion 57

5. STATE OF FEAR VERSUS STATE OF IGNORANCE 58
5.1 Introduction 58
5.2 Regional and International Concerns 59
5.3 National Dynamic Concerning Facing Global Warming 63
5.4 Conclusion 69

6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71
6.1 Conclusion 71
6.2 Recommendations 75

Bibliography 78
Appendix 1 Profile Informants 87
Appendix 2 Interview Transcripts 88
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