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研究生:薩威飛
研究生(外文):SAWADOGO Wilfried
論文名稱:Transnational Crimes in West Africa: New Challenges for Good Governance in a Globalizing World
論文名稱(外文):Transnational Crimes in West Africa: New Challenges for Good Governance in a Globalizing World
指導教授:薩支遠俞劍鴻俞劍鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Robert C. Y. SAKien-hong YU
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:國際事務研究所碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:Transnational Trafficking in Human BeingsWest AfricaGood GovernanceDomestic and International ActorsHuman Rights and DignityRegional Security Framework
外文關鍵詞:Transnational Trafficking in Human BeingsWest
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Major challenge to good governance, transnational trafficking in human beings is a serious problem for years in West Africa. Attempts to understand the phenomenon have then been initiated, which unfortunately have resulted in contradictory feelings amongst researchers and the populations. Indeed, seen by some as a mere entertainment, a source of profit or an abstract notion with no influence and no bearing upon their lives, transnational human trafficking is, in contrast, considered by others as a crucial preoccupation, a deadly reality that has drastically influenced their daily routine.

Complex in its nature and forms, transnational human trafficking has raised deep divisions on issues of principles, theories, perceptions and strategy to address it; hence the necessity for domestic and international actors to pay a serious attention on the phenomenon.

My present work seeks to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon, its causes and consequences while trying to draw out suggestions which could contribute to better strengthen West African regional security framework. In a word, governance in West Africa needs to be transformed into an effective cooperative framework where enhancing the dignity of human beings and their rights becomes a priority.
Major challenge to good governance, transnational trafficking in human beings is a serious problem for years in West Africa. Attempts to understand the phenomenon have then been initiated, which unfortunately have resulted in contradictory feelings amongst researchers and the populations. Indeed, seen by some as a mere entertainment, a source of profit or an abstract notion with no influence and no bearing upon their lives, transnational human trafficking is, in contrast, considered by others as a crucial preoccupation, a deadly reality that has drastically influenced their daily routine.

Complex in its nature and forms, transnational human trafficking has raised deep divisions on issues of principles, theories, perceptions and strategy to address it; hence the necessity for domestic and international actors to pay a serious attention on the phenomenon.

My present work seeks to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon, its causes and consequences while trying to draw out suggestions which could contribute to better strengthen West African regional security framework. In a word, governance in West Africa needs to be transformed into an effective cooperative framework where enhancing the dignity of human beings and their rights becomes a priority.
Acronyms ...................................................................VII
List of Tables ...............................................................X
List of Figures .............................................................XI
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................1
1.1-Study Contextualization and Problem Statement ............................5
1.2-Research Motivation and Objectives .......................................9
1.3-Research Area and Limitations ...........................................12
1.4-Literature Review .......................................................18
1.5-Methodology and Hypothesis ..............................................26
Chapter 2: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF TRANSNATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN WEST AFRICA ......................................................................31
2.1-Causes and Consequences .................................................31
2.1.a-Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences ................................31
2.1.b-Politico-Institutional Causes and Consequences ........................40
2.2-Challenges for Good Governance ..........................................43
Chapter 3: ADDRESSING THE PHENOMENON OF TRANSNATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN WEST AFRICA .................................................................50
3.1-Theoretical Solutions ...................................................50
3.2- Practical Solutions ....................................................56
Chapter 4: REGIONAL SECURITY BUILDING FOR COMBATING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE WEST AFRICAN REGION .........................................................69
4.1- Collaborative Capacity Building ........................................69
4.2- Regional and International Efforts for Security Building in West Africa 72
4.2.a- Role of Non-Governmental Organizations ...............................72
4.2.b- Initiatives by Inter-Governmental Institutions .......................75
4.3- Challenges and Limits to Cooperation ...................................79
CONCLUSION ..................................................................82
Bibliography ................................................................87
Appendix 1 ..................................................................95
Appendix 2 ..................................................................96
Appendix 3 ..................................................................97
Appendix 4 ..................................................................98
Appendix 5 ..................................................................99
Bibliography


1. Books

- Babbie, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. tenth edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2004.

- Bauman, Zigmunt. Le coût humain de la mondialisation. Paris: Hachette, 1999.

- Conn, Westport. Africa at the Crossroads. London: Praeger, 2004.

- Diehl, Paul F. The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. Lynne Rienner Publishers, third edition, 2005.

- Emilio, Viano C. Global Organized Crime and International Security. England: Ashgate Publishing, 1999.

- Fattah, Ezzat A. Criminology Past, Present, and Future: A Critical Overview. London: MacMillan. Press LTD, 1997.

- Held, David and McGrew Anthony G. Governing Globalization: Power, Authority, and Global Governance. London: Polity, 2002.

- Keohane, Robert O. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

- Id. International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder: Westview, 1989.

- Krasner, Stephen D. International Regimes. Ithaka: Cornell University Press, 1995,

- Id. International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

- Kyle, David, and Rey Koslowski. Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives, Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

- Love, Janice. Southern Africa in World Politics: Local Aspirations and Global Entanglements. Boulder: Westview Press, 2005.

- Marsh, David and Gerry Stoker. Theory and Methods in Political Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd Edition, 2002.

- Northey, Margot, Lorne Tepperman and James Russell. Making Sense in the Social Science: A student’s Guide to Research and Writing. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press, 2005.

- Pfaller, Alfred and Marika Lerch. Challenges of Globalization: New Trends in International Politics and Society. New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2005.

- Richards, James R. Transnational Criminal Organizations, Cybercrime and Money Laundering. Boca Raton: C R C Press, 1998.

- Rittberger, Volker. Regime Theory and International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002.

- Robinson, Jeffrey. The Merger: The Conglomeration of International Organized Crime. New York: The Overlook Press, 2000.

- Silbergh, David M. Doing Dissertation in Politics: A student Guide. London: Routledge 2001.

- Singapore: Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, Nanyang Technological University. Africa and the Challenge of Globalization, 2005.

- Williams, Phil, and Dimitri Vlassis, Combatting Transnational Crime. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001.

- Yu, Peter Kien-hong. The Crab and Frog Motion Paradigm Shift: Decoding and Deciphering Taipei and Beijing’s Dialectical Politics. Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 2002.

- Id. Hu Jintao and the Ascendancy of China. Singapore, Marshall Cavendish International, 2005.


2. Official documents

- The World Bank Report. Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Development. A Long Term Perspective Study. Washington D.C., 1989.

- The World Bank. Annual Report. Washington D.C., 1997.

- United Nations Development Program. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millenium Development Goals. New York, 2005.

- United Nations Development Program, World Human Development Report 2007 (New York, 2007).


International Legal Framework


International Labor Organization (ILO) Instruments

- ILO Convention and Recommendation concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, adopted in 1999
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/comp/child/standards/ilo_conv/index.htm (accessed August 15, 2007).

- International Labor Organization Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, C. 138 Minimum Age Convention, 1973
http://home.iprolink.ch/fitbb/TRADE_UNION_RIGHTS/ILO_Convention_138.html (accessed August 15, 2007).

- Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor, C29 Forced Labor Convention, 1930 http://home.iprolink.ch/fitbb/TRADE_UNION_RIGHTS/ILO_Convention_29.html (accessed August 15, 2007).

- Convention concerning the Abolition of Forced Labor, Convention No. 105, 5 June 1957 http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/law/con105.htm (accessed August 15, 2007).


United Nations (UN) Instruments

- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris)

- The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime adopted in 2000, also called the Palermo Convention, and the two Palermo Protocols thereto:
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.

- Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Draft United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime http://www.un.org/events/10thcongress/draft.htm (accessed August 15, 2007).


Regional Legal Framework

- The African charter of the human rights and the people adopted by the Organization of African Unity (OAU). (Adopted 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force 21 October 1986)
http://www.africa-union.org/official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/Banjul%20Charter.pdf (accessed August 15, 2007).

- The Libreville Declaration adopted by the First Summit of ACP Heads of State and Government Libreville, Gabon, 7 November 1997

- The Ouagadougou Action Plan to combat trafficking in human beings especially women and children, adopted on 28th November 2002.

- The ECOWAS Protocol on the Fight against Corruption of the Economic Community of West African States signed on 21 December 2001 but has not yet entered into force.
3. Periodical Journals

- Bessieres, Michel. “Troubled Lands Where Criminals are King,” UNESCO Courier, Vol. 54. No. 2 (February 1, 2001), p. 35.

- Galeotti, Mark. “The New World of Organized Crime,” Jane''s Intelligence Review, Vol. 12, No. 9, (September 1, 2000), pp. 47-55.

- Ghazanfar, S.M. “Third World Corruption: A Brief Survey of the Issues,”
Journal of Social, Political, & Economic Studies, Vol. 25. No. 3 (Fall 2000), pp. 351-368.

- Helton, Arthur C. and Eliana Jacobs. “Combatting Human Smuggling by Enlisting the Victims,” Migration World Magazine, Vol. 28. No. 4 (May 2000), p. 12.

- Hughes, Donna M. “The ‘Nathasha’ Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women,” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 53. No. 2 (Spring 2000), pp. 625-651.

- Joshi, Charu Lata. “The Body Trade,” Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 163, October 26, 2000, pp. 100-104.

- Mazzitelli, L. Antonio. “Transnational organized crime in West Africa: the additional challenge,” The Royal Institute of International Affairs, Vol. 83. No. 6 (November 2007), pp. 1071-1090.

- McCreight, Matilde Ventrella, “Smuggling of Migrants, Trafficking in Human Beings and Irregular Migration on a Comparative Perspective,” European Law Journal, Vol. 12. No. 1 (January 2006), pp.106-129.

- McGowan, J. Patrick, “Coups and Conflict in West Africa: 1955-2004” Armed Forces & Society (January 2006), Vol. 32, Issue 2, pp. 234-253.

- Mueller, O. W. Gerhard, “Transnational Crime: Definitions and Concepts,” Transnational
Organized Crime, Vol. 4 (Autumn/Winter 1998), pp. 13-21.

- Rosenau, James N. “Before Cooperation: Hegemons, Regimes, and Habit-Driven Actors in World Politics,” International Organization, Vol. 40. No. 4 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 849-894.

- Thomas, Caroline and Wilkin, Peter. “Globalization, Human Security, and the African Experience” African Studies Review, Vol. 44. No. 1 (April 2001), pp. 182-184.

- Trevor, McMorris Tate. “Regime Building in the Non-Proliferation System,” Center for International Relations, Queen’s University, Sage Publications, Journal of Peace Research (JSTOR), Vol. 27. No. 4 (November 1990), pp. 399-414.


4. Internet

- Arlacchi, Pino. “Nations Build Alliances to Stop Organized Crime,” http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj08.htm

- Dobriansky, Paula. “The Explosive Growth of Globalized Crime,” http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj01.htm

- Finckenauer, James O. “Meeting the Challenge of Transnational Crime,” http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000244b.pdf

- Interpol Official Website: http://www.interpol.int/

- Jordan, Ann. “Trafficking in Human Beings: The Slavery that Surrounds Us,” http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj05.htm

- Jordan D. Ann. “Human Rights of Wrongs: The Struggle for a Human Rights-based Response to Trafficking in Human beings,”
http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0ruZ_E14cBQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA28&dq=how+to+address+the+transnational+trafficking+in+human+beings&ots=0Vt2ptHDfi&sig=jDf0J6lGPUtVqWv0Zkf5sOsiiIc#PPA28,M1

- Shelley, Louise. “Crime Victimizes Both Society and Democracy,” http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj06.htm

- Swartz, Bruce. “Helping the World Combat International Crime,” http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj03.htm

- Swiss Co-ordination Unit against the Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants, “Co-operation Mechanisms for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings,” http://www.ejpd.admin.ch/etc/medialib/data/kriminalitaet/menschenhandel/leitfaden.Par.0002.File.tmp/Leitfaden_e.pdf

- Tandon, Yash. “The Violence of Globalization,” in Echoes, http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/what/jpc/echoes/echoes-18-08.html

- Tzvetkova, Marina. “NGO Responses to Trafficking in Women,” http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0ruZ_E14cBQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA28&dq=how+to+address+the+transnational+trafficking+in+human+beings&ots=0Vt2ptHDfi&sig=jDf0J6lGPUtVqWv0Zkf5sOsiiIc#PPA68,M1

- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, “Measures to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings in Benin, Nigeria and Togo”, September 2006 http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/ht_research_report_nigeria.pdf

- Williams, Phil. “Organized Crime and Cybercrime: Synergies, Trends, and Responses,”
http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj07.htm



5. Conferences, Thesis and Articles

- Beare, Margaret. “Structures, strategies and tactics of transnational criminal organisations: critical issues for enforcement,” 9-10 March 2000
http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/transnational/bearesst.html


- Bessig, G. Joel. “Governing the Democratic Philippines in a Globalizing World: Describing and Explaining the Human Rights Regime”, Master Thesis Ming Chuan University, July 2007, 59p.

- Broome, John. “Transnational crime in the twenty-first century,”
http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/transnational/broome.html

- McFarlane, John. “International co-operation against transnational crime: second track mechanisms,” http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/transnational/mcfarlane.html
- IDRI, « La Criminalite Transnationale », field survey done in Burkina Faso, August 2005.

- Yu, Peter. “Understanding (認識) International Regimes,” Conference Paper, updated on September 5, 2007.

- Smit, Vanessa. “Safe Migration: a Role in Curtailing Human Trafficking? A Theoretical Discussion and a Case Study of Human Trafficking from Nepal to India” Master Thesis, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August 2004, 70 p.


6. Online Publications

- Bendiek, Annegret. “Cross-Pillar Security Regime Building in the European Union: Effects of the European Security Strategy of December 2003.” publication in the European Integration online Papers (EIoP), 8 September 2006, http://eiop.or.at/eiop/index.php/eiop/article/view/2006_009a/29



7. Newspapers
- Jeune Afrique, www.jeuneafrique.com.
(Au royaume de l’“informel”’, Jeune Afrique, no. 230, 13–19 February 2005).

-Taipei Times, www.taipeitimes.com (WFP boss calls global food crisis a ‘silent tsunami’ Wed. April 23, 2008).
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