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研究生:許安琪
研究生(外文):An-Chi Hsu
論文名稱:The Dynamics of People Power Revolution in the Philippines in a Globalizing World
論文名稱(外文):The Dynamics of People Power Revolution in the Philippines in a Globalizing World
指導教授:俞劍鴻俞劍鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Peter Kien-hong YU
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:國際事務研究所碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:RevolutionGlobalizing WorldPower Movements
外文關鍵詞:Power MovementsRevolutionGlobalizing World
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The Philippines has had three major People Power movements where two earlier movements proved to be successful. What’s interesting about these movements is that they were nonviolent and yet so powerful as to cause the collapse of the Marcos and the Estrada regime. Although there have been many attempts by other cultures, nations, people groups employ this type of struggle, the enormous successful non-violent movement in this country was so remarkable to topple down a 20 year old regime. Nonviolent movements have been practiced for so many years and while others failed; others succeeded. This study attempts to discover the underlying factors that led to the success of the 1986 People Power Revolution in the Philippines against a very powerful dictator, Ferdinand Marcos. Part of this study also compared the case of Taiwan’s own people power movement against their leader, President Chen Shui-bian in 2006 with that of the Philippine experience. I have constructed a model that would simplify and explain the event that transpired in the Philippines during the periods of 1969-1986 to gain a better understanding of the whole phenomena and used it to apply to Taiwan case. Applying Gene Sharp’s theory on nonviolence, I have constructed a model that illustrates major factors that seem to be determinant in the overthrow of what seems to be an immovable dictator. These factors had major influence on the success of the People Power movement in the Philippines. Given the five major factors are also two other minor factors in the Philippine case, factors that might be present or absent in other countries, but contributor to movement’s victory.
The Philippines has had three major People Power movements where two earlier movements proved to be successful. What’s interesting about these movements is that they were nonviolent and yet so powerful as to cause the collapse of the Marcos and the Estrada regime. Although there have been many attempts by other cultures, nations, people groups employ this type of struggle, the enormous successful non-violent movement in this country was so remarkable to topple down a 20 year old regime. Nonviolent movements have been practiced for so many years and while others failed; others succeeded. This study attempts to discover the underlying factors that led to the success of the 1986 People Power Revolution in the Philippines against a very powerful dictator, Ferdinand Marcos. Part of this study also compared the case of Taiwan’s own people power movement against their leader, President Chen Shui-bian in 2006 with that of the Philippine experience. I have constructed a model that would simplify and explain the event that transpired in the Philippines during the periods of 1969-1986 to gain a better understanding of the whole phenomena and used it to apply to Taiwan case. Applying Gene Sharp’s theory on nonviolence, I have constructed a model that illustrates major factors that seem to be determinant in the overthrow of what seems to be an immovable dictator. These factors had major influence on the success of the People Power movement in the Philippines. Given the five major factors are also two other minor factors in the Philippine case, factors that might be present or absent in other countries, but contributor to movement’s victory.
Abstract    iv
Acknowledgements    v
Table of Contents    vi
List of Figure    ix
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
Chapter 2 BACKGROUND 4
2.1 The Term People Power 4
2.2 The Dictator Undermining Democracy 5
2.3 Nonviolent Struggle to Reclaim Democracy 7
2.4 Victory through People Power 8
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODS AND LIMITATION 9
3.1 First Major Factor: Military 14
3.2 Second Major Factor: Ruler’s Agent 17
3.3 Third Major Factor: General Population 18
3.4 Fourth Major Factor: Foreign Government/People 19
3.5 Fifth Major Factor: Church 20
3.6 Sixth Major Factor: Public Media 21
3.7 Two Minor Factors: Secessionist and Communists 22
3.8 Research Limitations 25
3.9 Hypothesis: 26
Chapter 4 PERIOD OF COOPERATION (1965-1969) 28
4.1 Economic Situation 28
4.2 International Relations 29
4.3 Secessionist Movement 30
4.4 The re-emergence of the Communist movement 31
4.5 Rise of Other Movements 31
4.6 Leadership Style Either Fosters Obedience or Disobedience 32
Chapter 5 PERIOD OF BEGINNING ANTAGONISM (1970- 1981) 36
5.1 Economic Crisis 37
5.2 General Population’s Major Initial Act of Disobedience 37
5.3 Marcos Still Maintains Strong Foreign Relations 38
5.4 Martial Law -1972 39
5.5 Secessionist Movement Continued Act of Violence 40
5.6 Growing Dissent among the General Population 41
5.7 Marcos Still Holding On the Military 42
5.8 Resistance to Power 43
Chapter 6 PERIOD OF OPEN HOSTILITY (1982-1985) 46
6.1 The General Population’s Growing Dissent and Act of Violence 47
6.2 Marcos Response to the Violence 48
6.3 Marcos and the Church Sensitive Relationship 49
6.4 Opposition Not Fully/Effectively Organized 50
6.5 Ruler’s Agent Going against Marcos 50
6.6 Foreign Relations Starting to Sour 50
6.7 The Media Control 52
6.8 Increasing Act of Disobedience and Non-Cooperation among the Subjects 52
6.9 Military Divided 53
Chapter 7 RULER’S COLLAPSE (1986) 57
7.1 Plans for People Power Protest (People United) 58
7.2 Ruler’s Agents Turned Their Back on Marcos 60
7.3 Weakening Military Support 61
7.4 The Church Supporting the Movement and Citizens Protect Disobedient Soldiers 62
7.5 No One Yielded to Fear Despite Threat 64
7.6 A Powerful Weapon 65
7.7 Media Crucial To Gathering/Uniting the People 66
7.8 Marines Refuse to Obey Their Head 66
7.9 Surrendering to Civilians/Cutting Marcos Media Link to the Public 67
7.10 Reagan Administration Urging Marcos to Step Down/Loss of Foreign Support 68
7.11 People Power Victory 69
Chapter 8 CONCLUSION 72
8.1 An Analysis of Taiwan Case 73
Bibliographies 77
Appendix I PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION KEY FIGURES PROFILE 81
Appendix II MAP OF KEY PLACES IN THE MOVEMENT 84
Appendix III PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION TIMELINE 85
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China Times, April 22, 2007.

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Guy Sacerdoti and Rodney Tasker. “Time of Turbulence,” Far Eastern Economic Review, October 6, 1983, p. 15.

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