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研究生:韋濟新
研究生(外文):Ghi-hsin Wei
論文名稱:數位落差與企業文化對組織決策從眾的影響:以證券商資訊決策為例
論文名稱(外文):The impacts of the digital divide, corporate culture herding in organizational decision-making:Take IT decision of Taiwanese securities firms as an example
指導教授:黃俊閎黃俊閎引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系碩士在職專班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:組織決策從眾數位落差企業文化
外文關鍵詞:herdingdigital dividecorporate cultureorganizational decision-making
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摘要
從眾(herding)意指追隨其他人的舉動,而做出相同決策的行為(Banerjee, 1992),社會心理學者認為從眾成因之一在於害怕做出錯誤的決策(Asch, 1951)。然而過去的研究較多側重在個體行為的探討,對於企業或組織在「從眾」的行為方面研究卻付之闕如。一般來說,企業經營基於競爭原則,應俱有其獨特性及專屬性,相同的經營策略並不一定適用於另一企業,所以依常理而言:企業組織的決策不會從眾,也不該從眾。但是,在一般認為應高度注重效率與績效的企業組織中,似乎也不難觀察到其決策從眾的現象。這種近乎盲目的組織決策跟隨現象俯拾皆是,從經營模式到新產品線,都可見在群體效應的影響下,採取與大多數同業一致的行為,即盲目跟隨多數或所謂一窩蜂的現象。Walden & Browne(2002)就指出了企業組織會因為潮流的驅動而跟隨著其他公司採用一個新的流程或科技。
有鑑於此,本研究擬進一步探討組織決策從眾的前因(antecedents)。經由相關文獻評析整理,本研究嘗試探討當企業的發展未能跟上或落後其產業的發展時,由於其所能掌握的資訊有限,為降低其交易成本與不確定性的產生,其決策選擇「從眾」行為發生之可能性是否會大幅地提高。又,企業文化是開啟組織承諾、影響價值觀、提昇經營績效的關鍵,何種企業文化在做組織決策時,較易形成從眾現象?
本研究以我國證券商引進語音下單的資訊決策為例,並輔以Roger(1995)的創新擴散模型的五階段分類,根據國內證券商引進語音下單系統的先後順序,作為判斷從眾與否的依據,並深入驗證本研究之架構。首先選取四家證券商高階主管進行專家訪談,再藉由發放問卷給參與證券商決策團隊的成員進行調查。
經由資料分析,結果顯示當高層管理團隊成員數位落差與組織決策從眾具有顯著正相關;而高層管理團隊成員數位落差愈大,採取組織決策從眾的可能性也就愈高。其次,本研究雖然無法證實企業文化與組織決策從眾具高度相關性,但企業文化中官僚型、支持型與企業決策從眾呈現出高度的正相關性。而創新型則與企業決策從眾呈現出高度負相關性。本研究並進一步針對上述研究結果提出其可能的研究意涵(implications)與實務建議,也提供後續研究者若干研究主題的方向建議。
Abstract
Herding, literally refers to behavior of following others act and making same decision (Banerjee, 1992). Thus, social psychologists consider cause of herding is mainly due to fear of wrong decision-making (Asch, 1951). However, past researches mostly stressed on study of individual behavior and lacking in studies of herding within enterprises or organizations. Generally, the enterprise managing principle is based on competitiveness, and should be unique and exclusive. Same management strategy may not be applicable to others. Thus, herding cannot and should not exist in enterprise decision-making. But, herding in decision-making still can be easily found in those commonly recognized as high efficiency and fruitful enterprises. As from management pattern and new line of products, herding influence can be easily detected, i.e. enterprises of the same trade making almost the same approach on similar issue. Walden & Browne (2002) has pointed out that enterprises / organizations will apply a new process or technique because of the current trend motivation.
In view of above, this research draws up the further investigation of antecedents of herding in organizational decision-making. By analysis and evaluation of correlate literature, this research will try to dig out if development of enterprise is well behind the other trades, due to limited information, and in order to minimise the trading cost and uncertainty; will the influence of herding in decision-making largely enhance ? Since corporate culture is the key to open organization pledge, trade value influence and management achievement promotion; during organizational decision-making, what type of enterprise culture will create the herding phenomenon ?
This research will take the example of IT decision of domestic securities firms introducing voice trading system and aided with five stages classification of Duffision of Innovations by Roger (1995), using the squential order of voice trading system introduced by local securities firms as a root judgement of herding to testify the structure of this research. Firstly, carry out professional discussion with high ranking managers of 4 picked securities firms, and issue questionnaire to the members of the attending securities firm decision-making teams. From their feed-back analysis, it indicates that digital divide and corporate culture within the decision-making team will definitely cause herding in decision-making. The greater digital divide in senior members will adhere to herding in decision-making more easily. Though, this research cannot prove the close relationship between corporate culture and herding in organizational decision-making. However, bureaucrats and supportives in corporate culture are positively relate to herding in organizational decision-making. As for innovatives and effectives, they are just on the other (negative) side of herding.
This research will further pin-point above findings as to bring forward possible investigation implications and substantial proposal as well as providing objectives and guideline to future researches.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vii
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xi
第壹章 、緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究目的與問題 4
第貳章 、文獻探討 5
第一節、組織決策從眾 5
一、 從眾 5
二、 從眾的成因 7
三、 組織從眾 9
第二節、數位落差 11
一、 數位落差的定義 11
二、 數位落差與決策及決策從眾之關係 12
第三節、企業文化 13
一、 企業文化的定義 13
二、 企業文化的類型 15
三、 企業文化的類型與決策從眾之關係 18
第參章 、研究方法 19
第一節、研究流程 19
第二節、研究模型 21
第三節、研究假說 22
一、 數位落差與組織決策從眾行為 22
二、 企業文化與組織決策從眾行為 22
第四節、變項操作性定義與衡量方式 23
一、 從眾行為 23
二、 數位落差 27
三、 企業文化 29
第五節、研究對象及範圍 31
第六節、研究設計 34
一、 專家訪談 34
二、 問卷設計及發放 35
三、 回收及分析方法 36
第肆章 、實證分析與結果 37
第一節、樣本結構分析 37
一、 從眾與否判別 37
二、 受訪者職稱 37
三、 受訪者年齡與年資 38
四、 受訪者任職部門 38
五、 受訪者教育程度 38
六、 企業文化 39
七、 數位落差 40
第二節、信度分析 41
一、 企業文化信度分析 41
二、 數位落差信度分析 44
第三節、假說檢驗 46
一、 企業數位落差與組織決策從眾 46
二、 企業文化與組織決策從眾 47
第四節、假說檢驗結果彙整 49
第伍章 、結論與建議 50
第一節、研究發現與討論 50
一、 數位落差與從眾行為 50
二、 企業文化與組織決策從眾 51
第二節、研究意涵與建議 52
一、 理論上的意涵與貢獻 52
二、 實務上的意涵與建議 53
第三節、研究限制 54
第四節、後續研究建議 55
參考文獻 56
附錄一:業界專家(主管)訪談紀錄 61
附錄二:問卷 80
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