跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.110.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 18:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張丹瓈
研究生(外文):Dan-li Chang
論文名稱:AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE PHONE ADVERTISING
論文名稱(外文):AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE PHONE ADVERTISING
指導教授:洪廣朋洪廣朋引用關係林谷合林谷合引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung Kuang-PengLin Ku-Ho,
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:SMS AdvertisingPermission MarketingMobile phone advertisingMobile phone marketingTheory of Reasoned Action.
外文關鍵詞:Mobile phone marketingMobile phone advertisingSMS AdvertisingPermission MarketingTheory of Reasoned Action.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:123
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Communication with consumers has changed in recent years. One way communication from companies to customers is no longer enough. Marketers now also look for interactive communication, a two-way direction where one can reply to customers’ problems immediately. The growing usage of mobile devices allows marketers to use this tool as a communication medium for their business objectives. This study examined consumers’ attitude toward mobile phone advertising using the Theory of Reasoned Action as model using for attitudes, consumers feeling toward the SMS advertisement. As for the characteristics of mobile phone marketing, it is recognized that there are privacy concerns from consumers. Using Permission Marketing as a condition, this study analyzes the reactions of consumers by analyzing the achievements in marketing objectives.
Communication with consumers has changed in recent years. One way communication from companies to customers is no longer enough. Marketers now also look for interactive communication, a two-way direction where one can reply to customers’ problems immediately. The growing usage of mobile devices allows marketers to use this tool as a communication medium for their business objectives. This study examined consumers’ attitude toward mobile phone advertising using the Theory of Reasoned Action as model using for attitudes, consumers feeling toward the SMS advertisement. As for the characteristics of mobile phone marketing, it is recognized that there are privacy concerns from consumers. Using Permission Marketing as a condition, this study analyzes the reactions of consumers by analyzing the achievements in marketing objectives.
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………….. …. … 2
Acknowledges………………………………………………………………………… 3
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………….. ….……………… 6
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………….. ….……………… 7
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivations .………………………………………..…... …. 9
1.2 Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………….…. …. … 10
1.3 Contributions .………………………………………………………………. … 11
1.4 Outline ……………….. …………………..…………………………………. … 12
CHAPTER II
2 LITERATURE REVIEW………………….…………………………….. …. … 15
2.1 Mobile phone marketing . …………………………………………………... 15
2.1.1 Issues in Mobile phone marketing . ……………………………………… 18
2.1.2 A Framework for (evaluating) Mobile phone marketing Effectiveness…. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. …… 20
2.2 Mobile phone advertising ……………………..………………….. ………….. 21
2.2.1 Permission Marketing…. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. ……. … 24
2.2.2 Characteristics of Mobile phone advertising…. ……. ……. ……. ……. 27
2.2.3 Factors influencing advertising effectiveness……. ……. ……. ……. … 30
2.2.4 Limitations of Mobile phone advertising……. ……. ……. ……. ……… 32
2.3 SMS – Mobile text messaging ………………………………………………… 32
2.3.1 Text Messaging Applications……………………………………………… 34
2.4 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)…………………………………………. 35
2.5 Relevant Research Factors…………………………………………………… 37
2.5.1 Advertising Value of Mobile phone advertising………………………… 37
2.5.2.1 Characteristics of the message……………………………………… 38
2.5.2 Acceptance of the mobile advertisement………………………………… 41
2.5.3 Attitude-Intention relationship…………………………………………… 42
2.5.4 Mobile phone marketing objectives………………………...…………… 42
CHAPTER III Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………… 46
3.2 Research Questions and Hypotheses……………………………………… 48
3.2.1 Explanation of the Hypotheses………………………………………… 50
3.3 Questionnaire Design and Data Collection ……………………………… 50
3.3.1 Language……………………………………………………………… 51
3.3.2 Research Participants………………………………………………… 52
3.3.3 Content of Questionnaire and Variable Measurements……………… 53
3.4 Piloting of the Questionnaire……………………………………………… 53
3.5 Questionnaire Distribution and Response Rate………………………… 54
3.6 Statistical Techniques……………………………………………………… 54
3.6.1. Reliability and Validity………………………………………………… 54
3.6.2. Descriptive Statistic…………………………………………………… 56
3.6.3. Correlations…………………………………………………………… 56
3.6.4. Statistical Techniques to Compare Groups…………………………… 57
3.6.5. Logistic Regression…………………………………………………… 59
CHAPTER IV Results
4.1 Mobile users’ sample composition………………………………………… 60
4.2 Mobile users’ usage analysis………………………………………………… 61
4.3 Hypothesis analysis………………………………………………………… 67
4.3.1 Logistic Regression analysis…………………………………………… 67
4.3.2 Correlation analysis…………………………………………………… 69
4.3.3 Paired t-test analysis…………………………………………………… 71
4.3.4 Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) ……………………… 72
4.4 Hypothesis Results………………………………………………………… 75
CHAPTER V Conclusion
5.1 Interpretations and Discussions…………………………………………… 78
5.2Research Limitations ……………………………………………………… 80
5.3Future research suggestions 81
References……………………………………………………………………………… 82
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………… 93
Appendix A……………………………………………………………………… 95
Appendix B……………………………………………………………………… 99



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Theory of Reasoned Action Factors that may influence mobile phone advertising …………………………... …………... ………….. 37
Figure 3.1:Research Design……………... ……………... ……………... ……… 47











LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1Morphological box of mobile phone marketing communication characteristics ………………………………………………………… 23
Table 2.3: Mobile phone marketing Framework……... ……………... ……… 43
Table 4.1: Sample Structure……………... ……………... ……………... ……… 60
Table 4.2.1: Usage per day of SMS……………... ……………... ……………... 62
Table 4.2.2: Sample Expense……………... ……………... ……………... ……… 62
Table 4.2.3:Uses of SMS Services……………... ……………... ……………... … 62
Table 4.2.4:Types of Mobile advertisements received by the sample…………… 63
Table 4.2.5:Used services from the Telecommunication System……………... … 64
Table 4.2.6:Users’ experience of receiving mobile advertisements……………... 64
Table 4.2.7: When do users read the mobile phone advertising message? ……………………………………………………………… 64
Table 4.2.8: Do users save the messages? ……………... ……………... ………… 64
Table 4.2.9: Cross Tabulation of having asked for permission experience and accepting to receive (Cross-Tabulated Frequency Counts) ……… 65
Table 4.2.9.1: Cross Tabulation of having asked for permission experience and accepting to receive (Relative Frequencies) ……………... ……… 65
Table 4.2.9.2: Cross Tabulation of having asked for permission experience and accepting to receive (Relative Frequencies by group) ……………… 65
Table 4.2.10:Mobile advertisements that users will accept………………………. 66
Table 4.2.11: Extension of the message……………... ……………... ……………... 67
Table 4.3.1:Logistic Regression Estimation……………... ……………... ……… 68
Table 4.3.2:Correlation Analysis among the attitudes and acceptance………… 70
Table 4.3.3: t-test paired analysis……………... ……………... ……………... … 71
Table 4.3.4-a:MANOVA (change brand image) ……………... ……………... …… 72
Table 4.3.4-b:MANOVA (brand awareness) ……………... ……………... ……… 73
Table 4.3.4-c: MANOVA (purchase decision) ……………... ……………... ……… 73
Table 4.3.4-d: MANOVA (send to friend) ……………... ……………... …………… 74
Table 4.4: Hypothesis Results………………... ……………... …………… 75
Aaker, D., Day, G. and Kumar, V., (1997), Marketing Research, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Ajzen, I. & Fishbein M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Akaah, Ishmael P., Korgaonkar, Pradeep K. and Lund, Daulatram (1995). Direct Marketing Attitudes. Journal of Business Research. 34 (3), 211-219.
American Marketing Association (1985). AMA Board Approves New Marketing Definition, Marketing News, 19(1).
Bagozzi, R. P. (1982). A Field Investigation of Causal Relations Among Cognitions, Affect, Intentions, and Behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, November, 562-584.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1992). The Self-regulation of Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly. 55, 178-204.
Bamba Fatim & Barnes Stuart J (2006). Evaluating Consumer Permission in SMS Advertising. Retrieved October 20th, 2006 from project.hkkk.fi/helsinkimobility/papers/Mobile%20Enterprise_2_2.pdf –
Barnes, S. J. (2003). Location-Based Services: The State of the Art. E-Service Journal. Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 59-70.
Barnes, S. J. & Scornavacca E. (2004). Mobile Marketing: the Role of Permission and Aceptance. International Journal of Mobile Communications. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 128-139.
Barwise P. & Strong C. (2002). Permission Based Mobile Advertising. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 16(1): 14-24.
Beatty, S. E., L. R. Kahle, P. Homer and M. Shekar (1985). Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values and the Rokeach Value Survey. Psychology and Marketing. 2(3), 181 - 200
Blattberg, Robert C. & Deighton, John (1991). Interactive Marketing Exploiting the Age of Addressability. Sloan Management Review. 33 1, Fall, pp. 5–14.
Bryman, A., (2004). Social Research Methods (2nd Edition), Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Carroll, A., Barnes, S.J. & Scornavacca, E. (2005). Consumers perceptions and attitudes towards SMS mobile phone marketing in New Zealand. Mobile Business, 2005. ICMB 2005. International Conference. 11-13 July, Page(s):434 – 440.
Chisnall, P., (1992), Consumer Behaviour, London, McGraw-Hill.
Churchill, G..A., (1999). Marketing Research, Methodological Foundations (7th Edition), Orlando, FL, The Dryden Press.
Coakes, S. and Steed, L., (2001). SPSS: Analysis without Anguish. Australia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cutitta F. (2005). Mobile Advertising Around the World. Presentation Materials: Preconference Wireless Promotional Strategies Around the World. The Annual Conference of the American Academy of Advertising. Houston.
Davis, D., (2000). Business Research for Decision Making, (5th Edition). Pacific Grove, CA. Duxbury Thompson Learning.
Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S., (2000). Case studies, in N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London, Sage Publications Ltd. pp. 435-454.
Dickinger Astrid & Haghirian Parissa. (2004) An Investigation and Conceptual Model of SMS Marketing. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Drossos, Dimitris & Giaglis, George M. (2006). Mobile phone advertising Effectiveness: an Exploratory Study. Mobile Business, 2006, ICMB ''06. International Conference. June, Page(s): 1- 2
Ducoffe, R. H. (1995). How Consumers Assess the Value of Advertising. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. 17(1 (Spring 1995)), 1 - 18.
Ducoffe, R. H. (1996). Advertising Value and Advertising on the Web. Journal of Advertising Research. 36(September/October), 21 - 36.
Easterby-Smith, M., Thrope, R. and Lowe, A., (1991). Management Research: An Introduction. London. Sage Publications Ltd.
Edwards, W. (1954). The Theory of Decision Making. Psychological Bulletin. 51, 380-417.
eMarketer. (2005). eMarketer, Mobile Advertising and Marketing Spending in the US, 2005–2009, Mobile MArketing and M-commerce: global spending and trends. Retrieved April 2nd, 2006 from http://www.emarketer.com/Report.aspx?mobile_mktg_feb05.
Erramilli, M.K. and Rao, C.P., (1993), Service Firms’ International Entry-Mode Choice: a Modified Transaction-Cost Analysis Approach, Journal of Marketing, vol. 57(3), pp. 19-38.
Evans P & Wurster T. (2000). Blown to bits: How the New Economics of Information Transforms Strategy. Harvard Business School Press.
Field, A., (2000). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows, London, Sage Publication Ltd.
Fishbein, M. (1963). An Investigation of the Relationships Between Beliefs About an Object and the Attitude Toward that Object. Human Relations. 16(3), 233-239.
Ghauri, P.N. and Prasad, B., (1995), A Network Approach to Probing Asia’s Inter-Firm Linkages, Advances in International Comparative Management, vol. 10, pp. 63-77.
Ghauri, P. N. and Grønhaug, K, (2002), Research Methods in Business Studies, Essex, Pearson Education Ltd.
Godin S. (1999). Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into Friends, and Friends into Customers. New York.
Haghirian Parissa, Madlberger Maria & Tanuskova Andrea (2005). Increasing Advertising Value of Mobile Marketing – An Empirical Study of Antecedents. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Hans H. Bauer, Neumann Marcus M., Barnes Stuart J. & Reichardt Tina (2005). Driving Consumer’s Acceptance on Mobile Marketing: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND EMPIRICAL STUDY. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL. 6, NO.3. PG 181-
Houston, F. S. and J. B. Gassenheimer (1987). Marketing and Exchange. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. 51(October), 3 - 18.
Howell, D.C., (2002). Statistical Methods for Psychology. USA. Duxbury Thomson Learning.
Johnson, D.R., and Creech, J.C., (1983), Ordinal Measures in Multiple Indicator Models: A Simulation Study of Categorization Error, American Sociological Review, vol. 48, pp. 398-407.
Kaasinen, E. (2003). User Needs for Location-aware Mobile Services. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. 7(70 – 79).
Katterbach, W. (2002). Die SMS-Verkäufer. Impulse, February 1st, pg 76.
Kölmel, B. (2003). Location Based Services, Mobile Commerce – Anwendungen und Perspektiven, Key Pousttchi and Klaus Turowski (eds.), Gesellschaft für Informatik, Bonn, pp. 88-101.
Korgaonkar, P.K., Lund, D. and Price, B. (1985). ‘A Structural Equations Approach Toward Examination of Store Attitude and Store Patronage Behaviour’. Journal of Retailing, 61, 2, 39- 60.
Kotler Philip (2003). Marketing Management, 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Kroeber-Riel, W. & Weinberg, P (2003). Konsumentenverhalten. Verlag Franz Vahlen Muenchen, Munich.
Leiderman, R. (1990). The Telephone Book. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Berkshire. UK.
Lehmkuhl, F. (2003). Küsse und Machotests. FOCUS, January 6th.
Li Hairong, S and Lee, J. (2002). Measuring the Intrusiveness of Advertisements: Scale Development and Validation. Journal of Advertising. Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 37-47.
Ling, R. (2001). Adolescent Girls and Young Adult Men: Two Sub-Cultures of the Mobile Telephone. Kjelier, Telenor Research & Development.
Mackenzie, S.B., Lutz, R.J., & Belch, G.E. (1986). The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations. Journal of Marketing Research. 23(2), 130–143.
MacKenzie, S. B. and R. L. Lutz (1989). An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context. Journal of Marketing, 53.
Malhotra N.K. and Birks, D.F. (2000). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach. Harlow, Pearson Education Ltd.
Marinova A, Murphy J, Massey BL (2002). Permission E-mail Marketing as a Means of Targeted Promotion. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly..
Marshall R. and N. WoonBong (2003). An Experimental Study of the Role of Brand Strength in the Relationship Between the Medium of Communication and Perceived Credibility of the Message. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 17, No. 3:75-80.
McDaniel, C. and Gates, R., (1996). Contemporary Marketing Research, St Paul, MN, West Publishing Company.
McManus, Patricia & Scornavacca, Eusebio (2005). Mobile Marketing: Killer Application or New Hype? Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Business. (ICMB 2005).
McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction. London: Sage Publication.
Milne, G.M., Boza, M.E., & Rohm, A. (1999). Controlling Personal Information in Marketing Databases: A Consumer Perspective. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Winter Meeting.
Milne, G. and M. E. Gordon (1993). Direct Mail Privacy - Efficiency Trade-Offs within an Implied Social Contract Framework. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. 12(2), 206 - 216.
Mitchell, A.A., & Olson, J.C. (1981). Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude? Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 318–332.
Nan, X., Faber, R. J. (2004): Advertising Theory: Reconceptualizing the Building Blocks, Marketing Theory, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, pp. 7-30.
Okazaki S, Taylor CR (2007). What is SMS Advertising and Why do Multinationals Adopts it? Answers from an Empirical Study in European Markets. J Bus Res (2007), doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.05.003. Pgs 1-4.
Ozhan Dedeoglu, A. (2004). The Symbolic Use of Mobile Technology Among Turkish Consumers. Journal of Euro-Marketing. 2(3), 143 – 162
Pal, P (2000). Statistical Analysis using SPSS for Windows. Royal University of London.
Pallant, J., (2001), SPSS Survival Manual, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Pavlou, P. A. and D. W. Stewart (2000). Measuring the Effects and Effectiveness of Interactive Advertising: A Research Agenda. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1(1). Retrieved on October 20th, 2006 from
http://www.jiad.org/voll/nol/pavlou.
Peak, H. (1995). Attitude and Motivation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 3, pp. 149±188). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar G. A. (2006). Contribution to Theory Building for Mobile Marketing: Categorizing Mobile Marketing Campaigns through Case Study Research, Mobile Business, 2006, ICMB ''06, International Conference. Page(s):1 – 8.
Quah J.T.-S. and Lim G.L. (2002). Push Selling – Multicast Messages to Wireless Devices Based on the Publish/Subscribe Model. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. (3–4), pp. 235–246.
Quios/Engage (2000). The Efficacy of Wireless Advertising: Industry Overview and Case Study. Retrieved on February 12th, 2007 from
http://www.mobilecommerceworld.com/download/QuiosEngage_WP.pdf,
Rao, B. and Minakakis, L. (2003). Evolution of Mobile Location-Based Services. Communications of the ACM. 46(12), pp. 61 - 65.
Rask M and Dholkia N. (2001). Next to the Customer''s Heart and Wallet: Frameworks for Exploring the Emerging M-Commerce Arena. Vol. 12, Arizona., American Marketing Association.
Raskino, M. (2001). Mobile Coupons will Reach Right into your Pocket, Gartner Group Research Note. Retrieved on July 16th, 2006 from
http://www.gartner.com/
Rettie, Ruth Grandcolas Ursula, Deakins Bethan (2005). Text Message Advertising: Response Rates and Branding Effects. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing.
Rodgers, S. and E. Thorson (2000). The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1(1).
Robins, F. (2003). The Marketing of 3G. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(6), 370 - 378.
Sarker, S. and J. D. Wells (2003). Understanding Mobile. Communications of the ACM. 46(12).
Shavitt, S., P. Lowrey and J. Haefner (1998). Public Attitudes Towards Advertising: More Favourable Than You Might Think. Journal of Advertising Research. 38(4), 7 - 22.
Siau, K., Lim, E-P., Shen, Z. (2003). Mobile Commerce: Current States and Future Trends. Advances in Mobile Commerce Technologies. pp 1-18
Stewart, D. W. and P. A. Pavlou (2002). From Consumer Response to Active Consumer: Measuring the Effectiveness of Interactive Media. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 30(4), 376 - 396.
Sheehan, K.B., & Hoy, M.G. (2000), Dimensions of Privacy Concerns Among Online Consumers. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. 19 (1), 62-73.
Shimp, T.A. (1981). Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Consumer Brand Choice. Journal of Advertising, 10(2), 9–15.
Silberer, G. & J. Wohlfahr (2001). Akzeptanz und Wirkungen des Mobile Banking, Strategien im M-Commerce, Alexander Nicolai and Thomas Petersmann (eds.), Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, pp. 161-176.
SkyGo Inc. (2001). SkyGo Study Illustrates Wireless Advertising Is an Effective Branding and Direct Response Vehicle. Retrieved on October 19th, 2006 from
http://www.skygo.com/newspr01_0305.html.
Tezinde, T., Smith, B. & Murphy, J. (2002). Getting Permission: Exploring Factors Affecting Permission Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 16(4), pp. 28-36.
TMC Net (2006). 2006 Will Be the Year of Mobile Advertising Experimentation. TMC net news. Retrieved March 16, 2006 from http://www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/2006/03/16/1465460.htm,
Trochim, W., (2000). The Research Methods Knowledge Base (2nd Edition). Cincinnati, Atomic Dog Publishing.
Tsang Melody M., Ho Shu-Chun, and Liang Ting-Peng (2004). Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile Advertising: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 8, 3, 65–78.
van Tongeren, M. de Lussanet, J. Favier & R. Jennings (2004). Mobile Campaigns that don''t Annoy: How Should Marketers Create Successful SMS Campaigns? Trends. Forrester research. March 8.
Varshney, U. (2003). Location Management for Mobile Commerce Applications in Wireless Internet Environment. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 3(3), 236 - 255.
Windwire (2000). First-to-Wireless: Capabilities and Benefits of Wireless Marketing and Advertising Based on the First National Mobile Marketing Trial. Retrieved November 25th, 2006 from http://www.imapproject.org/imapproject/downloadroot/public3/ftw_report.pdf,
Wohlfahrt, J. (2002). Wireless Advertising. In (Silberer; Wohlfahrt; Wilhelm): Mobile Commerce. Gabler, Wiesbaden.
Xu, H., Teo, H. H., & Wang, (2003). Foundations of SMS Commerce Success: Lessons Messaging and Co-opetition. 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island. Hawaii.
Zikmund, W.G., (2000). Business Research Methods (6th Edition). Orlando, FL. Dryden Press, Harcourt College Publishers.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top