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研究生:翁靖惠
研究生(外文):Ching-Hui Weng
論文名稱:航空公司內部行銷作為、空服員情緒勞務、組織承諾與顧客導向行為關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research of the Relationship among Airline’s Internal Marketing, Flight Attendant’s Emotional Labor, Organization Commitiment and Customer Orientation Behavior
指導教授:洪廣朋洪廣朋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang-Peng Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:管理學院高階經理碩士學程
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:空服員内部行銷情緒勞務組織承諾顧客導向
外文關鍵詞:Customer Orientation BehaviorOrganaization CommitmentEmotional LaborInternal MarketingFlight Attendant
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在頻繁的商務活動與旅遊機會下,航空業已從過去傳統的交通運輸功能轉型為重視顧客價值的服務產業,尤其在能源價格與運輸成本節節高漲的環境當中,航空公司要在競爭激烈的紅海中尋找藍海優勢,應以顧客為優先考量,以滿足顧客需求產生差異化來爭取廣大的客源。
空服員是航空公司的第一線服務人員,代表著航空公司的形象也是與顧客接觸最多的職務角色,爰此,本研究以空服員的觀點來探討航空公司的內部行銷作為、空服員的情緒勞務、組織承諾和顧客導向行為之間的關係,針對國內六家航空公司之空服員以立意抽樣方式進行問卷調查,調查期間為96年10~12月,總計發放500份問卷,有效問卷回收數為488份,有效問卷回收率為89.6%。
研究結果得知:1.航空公司的內部行銷作為會影響空服員的顧客導向行為,2.空服員的情緒勞務會影響顧客導向行為,3.空服員的組織承諾會影響顧客導向行為,4.航空公司內部行銷作為會影響空服員的情緒勞務,5.航空公司內部行銷作為會影響空服員的組織承諾。
本研究發現,不同的個人特徵的空服員中,單身、年齡較輕、職級較小、年資較淺、月收入較少的空服員、對航空公司內部行銷作為的認同程度較高;空服員的平均收入越高,對情緒勞務承受的程度也越高;然而年齡在31歲以上、專科學歷、年資較久、職級較資深、平均月收入較高的空服員對航空公司的組織承諾則較高;年齡較高、年資較久、平均月收入較高之空服員展現出顧客導向行為的程度也就越高;此外,遠東航空的空服員對公司內部行銷有較高的滿意與認同,反應於工作上的也有較高的情緒勞務表現,對航空公司的組織承諾也高於其他航空公司,因此表現於工作上也較能發揮顧客導向行為。
Under the frequent business activeies and travel opportunities, airline industries have transited from a traditional transporation business to a customer value orientated service industry. In this environment of high fuel prices and operation costs, airlines have to find their own blue sea advantage in the harsh red sea. It should be consideration to have priority in customers, and make different strategy to satisfy customers demand in order to gain extensive passengers.
Flight attendants are the first-line to serve passengers in airlines. They are a role not only serve as airline’s image but also interact passenger at most. Therefore, from flight attendant’s viewpoint, this research studies the relationship between airline’s internal marketing, flight attendant’s emotional labor, organization commitment and customer orientation behavior. The research was justified by the empirical study and conducted questionnaire-survey to six airlines flight attendants from October to December 2007. This research delivered 500 sheets questionnaires pass out and 488 sheets were effective returned.The effective return rate was 89.6%.
The research resulted in five conclusions:
1. The airline’s internal marketing affects flight attendant’s customer orientation behavior.
2. The flight attendant’s emotional labor effects customer orientation behavior.
3. The flight attendant’s organization commitment effects customer orientation behavior.
4. The airline’s internal marketing effects flight attendant’s emotional labor.
5. The airline’s internal marketing effects flight attendant’s organizational commitment.
This research recognized that amount flight attendant’s personal characteristics. Flight attendants are single, young, junior, lower position and incomes who agree with the airline’s internal marketing strategies. Flight attendants with higher income also impact more emotional lobor. Flight attendant, however, with age older than 31, academy educational degree, senior, higher position and incomes, could identify with higher organization commitment to airline. Flight attendants with older, senior, higher incomes, could exhibit higher customer orientation behavior. This research also finds that flight attendants from Far Easten Transport Airlines consent with the airline’s internal marketing. And they reflect better emotional labor in job. Their organizational commitments are higer than other five airlines and also have high customer orientation behavior.
目錄 I
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3
1.4 研究範圍與對象 4
1.4.1 研究範圍 4
1.4.2 研究對象 4
1.4.3 空服員職級簡介 4
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 內部行銷 6
2.1.1 內部行銷的源起 6
2.1.2 內部行銷的概念演進與意義 7
2.1.3 內部行銷作為的重要性 13
2.1.4 內部行銷的應用與實證 14
2.1.5 內部行銷的衡量構面 17
2.1.6 小結 19
2.2 情緒勞務 19
2.2.1 情緒勞務的意義 20
2.2.2 情緒勞務的重要性與特性 22
2.2.3 情緒勞務的影響 22
2.2.4 情緒勞務的分類與構面 23
2.2.5 小結 25
2.3 組織承諾 25
2.3.1 組織承諾的意義 25
2.3.2 組織承諾的重要性 27
2.3.3 組織承諾的相關變項 29
2.3.4 組織承諾的分類 30
2.3.5 組織承諾的衡量 33
2.3.6小結 34
2.4 顧客導向行為 34
2.4.1 顧客導向行為的意義 34
2.4.2 顧客導向行為的重要性與相關實證 37
2.4.3 顧客導向行為的衡量構面 39
2.4.4 小結 40
第三章 研究方法 41
3.1 研究架構 41
3.2 研究假設 41
3.2.1 內部行銷作為與顧客導向行為之間的關係 41
3.2.2 情緒勞務與顧客導向行為之間的關係 42
3.2.3 組織承諾與顧客導向行為之間的關係 42
3.2.4 內部行銷與情緒勞務之間的關係 43
3.2.5 內部行銷與組織承諾之間的關係 43
3.3 操作型定義 44
3.3.1 內部行銷 44
3.3.2 情緒勞務 45
3.3.3 組織承諾 45
3.3.4 顧客導向行為 46
3.4 研究設計 46
3.4.1 研究對象 46
3.4.2 問卷設計 47
3.4.3 衡量變數之量表來源 47
3.5 資料分析方法 51
3.5.1 敘述性統計 51
3.5.2 信度分析 51
3.5.3 效度分析 52
3.5.4 因素分析 52
3.5.5 獨立樣本T檢定 52
3.5.6 單因子變異數分析 53
3.5.7 相關分析 53
3.5.8 多元迴歸分析 53
第四章 資料分析與結果 54
4.1 敘述性統計分析 54
4.1.1 問卷回收 54
4.1.2 樣本分佈情形 54
4.1.3 各研究變數之敘述統計分析 56
4.2 信度與效度分析 57
4.2.1 信度分析 57
4.2.2 效度分析 57
4.3 因素分析 58
4.4 差異性分析 61
4.4.1 獨立樣本T檢定 61
4.4.2 單因子變異數分析 62
4.5 相關分析 69
4.5.1 內部行銷、情緒勞務、組織承諾與顧客導向行為之相關性 69
4.5.2 內部行銷與顧客導向行為之相關性 71
4.5.3 情緒勞務與顧客導向行為之相關性 71
4.5.4 組織承諾與顧客導向行為之相關性 71
4.5.5 內部行銷與情緒勞務之相關性 72
4.5.6 內部行銷與組織承諾之相關性 72
4.6 多元迴歸分析 72
4.6.1 內部行銷與顧客導向之關係 73
4.6.2 情緒勞務與顧客導向之關係 73
4.6.3 組織承諾與顧客導向之關係 74
4.6.4 內部行銷與情緒勞務之關係 75
4.6.5 內部行銷與組織承諾之關係 76
4.6.6 內部行銷、情緒勞務、組織承諾與顧客導向行為之關係 76
4.6.7 中介效果 77
4.7 研究結果彙整 79
第五章 結論與建議 81
5.1 結論 81
5.1.1 假設檢定結果 81
5.1.2 差異分析結果 82
5.2 研究限制 84
5.3 建議 85
5.3.1 實務上的管理意涵 85
5.3.2 未來的研究方向與建議 87
參考文獻 88
附錄一(問卷) 97
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二、中文部分
1.丁虹,「企業文化與組織承諾之關係研究」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所博士論文,民國76年6月。
2.于家琳,「中介性職務之情緒勞務、情緒規則及其社會化:以廣告業務人員為例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民國88年6月。
3.尹衍樑,「組織變革策略對組織承諾之影響研究-以潤泰工業股份有限公司電腦化為例」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國77年6月。
4.卡爾阿布萊特,顧客價值,尉騰蛟譯:長流出版社,民國77年。
5.江岷欽, 「顧客導向的服務理念」,人力發展月刊,第72期,民國89年,頁20-31。
6.巫喜瑞,「服務業內部行銷導向、組織支持、工作滿足與顧客導向間關係之研究 銀行業之例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系研究所博士論文,民國90年6月。
7.呂慈恩,「內部行銷對知識管理影響之研究 以新竹科學園區資訊電子產業為例」,私立實踐大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國91年6月。
8.林尚平、陳敦生,「情緒勞務分類下自我監控與組織行為結果之關聯性研究」,人力資源學報,第7卷,民國85年,頁46-66。
9.林淑暖,「乘客對國內民用航空客運服務購買行為、滿意程度與再購意願之研究」,私立東吳大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。民國86年6月。
10.周衡逸、巫喜瑞,「服務員工知覺之內部行銷作為、角色知覺與顧客導向關係之研究-以旅館業為例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系研究所未出版之論文,民國89年6月。
11.吳三江,「醫療服務業內部行銷活動對就醫者導向行為影響之研究 以高雄市立醫院為例」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文,民國90年6月。
12.吳統雄,「態度與行為研究的信度與效度:理論、反應、反省」,民意學術專刊,民國74年,頁29-53。
13.李是惠,「內部行銷作為影響顧客導向行為之研究 以S公司量販店為例」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文,民國91年6月。
14.沈洸洋,「非營利組織志工內部行銷之研究」,私立義守大學管理科學研究所碩士論文,民國91年5月。
15.邱馨儀,「國民小學學校組織文化與教師組織承諾之關係研究」,國立台中師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,民國84年6月。
16.梁雯玟,「顧客導向、服務補償與服務品質之關係研究¬¬ 以國際觀光旅館為實證」,國立成功大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國89年6月。
17.黃淑琴,「台灣壽險業內部行銷與經營績效之關聯性探討」,私立靜宜大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國88年6月。
18.黃國隆,「中學教師的組織承諾與專業承諾」,政治大學學報,第53卷,民國75年,頁55-84。
19.許哲豪,「壽險業業務員顧客導向行為之研究」,國立東華大學企業管理學系碩士班碩士論文,民國95年6月。
20.章佩瑜,「學校文化與教師組織承諾及工作滿足關係之研究」,國立台北師範學院教育研究所碩士論文,民國88年6月。
21.張嘉娟,「員工內部行銷知覺、企業文化差異知覺與組織承諾之關聯性研究-以集團企業子公司員工為研究對象」,私立中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國93年6月。
22.張曉毓,「情緒勞務組織行為結果與人力資源管理方案之研究」,國立雲林科技大學企業管理技術研究所碩士論文,民國87年6月。
23.蔡寬信,「國民小學學校組織氣候、教師內外控信念、與教師組織承諾關係之研究」,國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文,民國82年6月。
24.劉春榮,「國民小學組織結構、組織承諾與學校效能關係研究」,國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文,民國82年6月。
25.薛皓,「內部行銷、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究 以東森電視台為例」,私立銘傳大學傳播管理研究所碩士學位論文,民國94年6月。
26.蕭富峰,內部行銷,台北:天下文化出版社,民國86年。
27.謝宜倩,「國民小學教師對學校人力資源管理之執行成效與知覺及其組織承諾」,國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,民國90年6月。
28.謝福樹,「從關係行銷探討關係品質之模式-以我國銀行業為例」,私立義守大學管理研究所碩士論文,民國90年6月。
29.韓建玲,「內部行銷對顧客導向行為影響之研究-以民營銀行為例」,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文,民國86年6月。
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