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研究生:李承駿
研究生(外文):Cheng-Jiun Lee
論文名稱:無線隨意式網路上偵測蟲洞攻擊之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad hoc networks
指導教授:蘇民揚
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yang Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:資訊傳播工程學系碩士班
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:多路徑繞路AWAODVAODV蟲洞攻擊隨意式無線網路
外文關鍵詞:Wormhole AttackAODVAWAODVmulti-path routingMobile Ad hoc Networks(MANET)
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在隨意式無線網路中,由於網路缺乏基礎建設幫忙繞路,因此需要所有節點使用相同繞路協定來互相幫忙傳遞訊息。但目前常見的繞路協定幾乎是以效能為第一考量,對於惡意行為幾乎毫無抵抗力。雖然有許多學者提出了提升安全性的繞路協定來防範攻擊行為,但各自有防禦的對象,也各自有無法抵擋的攻擊。在眾多攻擊之中,蟲洞攻擊(wormhole attack)造成的威脅非常大,而且其攻擊行為也非常難以預防與偵測。因此本論文特別針對蟲洞攻擊,提出了一個以AODV繞路協定為基礎的安全繞路協定,稱為AWAODV(Avoid Wormhole AODV)。AWAODV在路徑尋找過程使用到多路徑(multi-path)繞路的觀念,藉以避開可能執行蟲洞攻擊的節點,但最後仍是採用一條路徑來傳送資料。此方法是針對蟲洞攻擊會佔去大部份的資料傳輸路徑的特徵,讓惡意節點的鄰居節點們,能夠發覺惡意節點有異常取得路徑的吸引力,使正常節點在繞路的過程中,避開經由惡意節點的路徑;隨後惡意節點便會漸漸被正常的鄰居節點們孤立,最終惡意節點將會被整個網路所隔離。
In Mobile Ad hoc Networks(MANET), because of lock some infrastructural to helping routing. Every source node need to use routing protocol to helping find the way to destination node. We notice that some famous routing protocols were focus on energy or transmission efficacy, almost have no resistances on malicious behavior. Although some security routing protocols was proposed to resist some malicious behavior. But still have some limitations to resist wormhole attack. Because of the behavior of wormhole attacker is hardly to recognized. So, we can say wormhole attack is one the most threatened attack in MANET. In this paper, we proposed an AODV based secure routing protocol, named AWAODV(avoid-wormhole AODV) to fight against wormhole. AWAODV used the concepts of multi-path routing, but it still transmission data with the only one path. AWAODV can not only detect wormhole node but also isolate these malicious nodes. This motivation is derived from the observation that wormhole node has extremely ability to attract the data packet get through itself. So their neighbors will deny forwarding any RREP from the suspicious node which anomaly value excess the threshold. After a period of time, such wormhole node will be isolated from the MANET.
摘要 i
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
第一章、緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究問題 2
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 論文架構 4
第二章、背景知識 5
2.1 主動式繞路協定 5
2.2 被動式繞路協定 6
2.2.1 AODV(Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) 7
2.2.2 SAODV(Secure AODV) 14
2.2.3 ARAN(Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networks) 15
2.2.4 DSR(Dynamic Source Routing protocol) 17
2.3 Attacks on MANET 17
2.3.1 常見針對繞路協定的攻擊 18
2.3.2 蟲洞攻擊 21
第三章、相關研究 25
3.1 修改繞路協定抵抗蟲洞之相關研究[9][17][18][19][23] 25
3.2 使用硬體抵抗蟲洞攻擊之相關研究[10][11][20] 27
第四章、研究方法 29
4.1 AWAODV繞路協定簡介 29
4.2 AWAODV新增的繞路訊息和路由表欄位 30
4.3 AWAODV的繞路特性 34
第五章、模擬結果與分析 48
5.1 使用的繞路協定 48
5.2 實驗環境 49
5.3 實驗參數(一)、一條蟲洞隧道分布於網路中央: 52
5.4 實驗參數(二)、兩條蟲洞隧道交叉分布於網路中央: 54
第六章、結論 56
[1]C. E. Perkins, E. M. Royer, and S. R. Das. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing IETF INTERNET DRAFT, MANET working group, Jan. 2004. draft-perkins-manet-rfc3561bis-01.txt
[2]M.Zapata and N. Asokan, “Securing Ad-hoc Routing Protocols,” in Proc. Of ACM Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe), Atlanta, GA, Sept. 2002.
[3]D. B. Johnson, D.A. Maltz, and Y.-C. Hu, “The Dynamic Source Routing protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Network (DSR), IETF Internet Draft (work in progress), July 2004
[4]Kimaya Sanzgiri, Bridget Dahill, Brain Neil Levine, Clay Shields, and Elizabeth Belding-Royer. A Secure Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Networks. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE international Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP ‘02),November 2002.
[5]Panagiotis Papadimitratos and Zygmunt J. Hass. Secure Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In SCS Communication Networks and Distributed Systems Modeling and Simulation Conference (CNDS 2002), January 2002.
[6]C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,” SIGCOMM, UK, 1994
[7]Giovanni Vigna, Sumit Gwalani, Kavitha Srinivasan, Elizabeth M.Belding-Royer and Richard A. Kemmerer. An Intrusion Detection Tool for AODV-based Ad hoc Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC’04), 2004.
[8]Xuefei Li and Laurie Cuthbert, Node-Disjointness-Based Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. PE-WASUN’04, October 7, 2004.
[9]Issa Khalil, Saurabh Bagchi and Ness B.Shroff. LITEWORP: A Lightweight Countermeasure for the Wormhole Attack in Multihop Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’05), 2005
[10]Xia Wang and Johnny Wong. An End-to-End Detection of Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. 31st Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference(COMPSAC 2007), 2007.
[11]Yih-Chnu Hu, Adrian Perrig and David B. Jonhson. Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks, to be published in IEEE Journal on selected areas in communication, Vol. 24, NO. 2, February 2006, pp. 370-380.
[12]The Network Simulator - ns-2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/
[13]Y.-C. Hu, A.Perrig, and Davic B. Johnson. “Ariadne: a Secure On-demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom), 2002, pp. 12-23.
[14]L. Butty
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