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研究生:林柏華
研究生(外文):Po-Hua Lin
論文名稱:英語教學環境中,「懶哥們效應」與學生的文化背景關係之探討
論文名稱(外文):A Research on Social Loafing and Students’ Cultural Orientations in ESL/EFL Classroom
指導教授:張其羽張其羽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Yu Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:應用英語學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:文化背景懶哥們效應團體活動英語教學環境
外文關鍵詞:ESL/EFL ClassroomGroup ActivitiesCulture OrientationsSocial Loafing
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小組討論及小組報告這類小組活動,越來越常在英語教學環境中所使用。然而,小組這個名詞,雖然包含了許多個體,但所共同貢獻出來的表現有時卻不能與個人的表現相提並論。一些研究團體工作的相關文獻指出,「懶哥們效應」或許即是主要原因。「懶哥們效應」是否及如何破壞團體的努力,仍須一些更深入的研究。由於察覺學生們必須參加以團體為導向的學術活動,此研究試圖:1. 檢驗是否文化背景是英語教學環境中所產生的「懶哥們效應」的重要起因;2. 推論具有哪種文化背景的學生較會有「懶哥們效應」的產生。研究結果顯示,文化背景解釋了英語教學環境中所產生的「懶哥們效應」,並且支持了學生來自集團主義國家較不會產生「懶哥們效應」的研究假設。此研究試圖提供給相關英語教學領域的老師們在他們使用小組活動來上課時一些有關學生文化背景的建議。此研究也可提供一些未來與「懶哥們效應」相關研究的參考。
Group activities, such as group discussion and group work, are applied more frequently in ESL/EFL classroom. However, groups, consisting of more than one person, sometimes cannot perform as well as an individual does. According to the established studies and what many of those involved in teamwork have experienced, social loafing, which implies a free ride fallacy, seems to be a key reason. Whether and how social loafing must turn out destructive or undermining jointed effort made by a group thus remain problematic and deserve further exploration. With the fact that more students are requested to attend academic activities that are characterized by division of labor and mutual cooperation, this paper attempts to (1) examine whether cultural orientation, which is attested as the determiner of human behavior, is the crucial causal factor for social loafing occurring in ESL/EFL classroom and (2) deduce who has more possibility to loaf. The result of this study reveals that cultural orientation stands for a crucial explanation for social loafing, and students from collectivistic orientation are less possible to loaf. This research tries to provide teachers with insights into students’ cultural orientations when they group their students to conduct a class. For advanced studies related to group work, this research could serve as a rough reference and provide a clear framework.
Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
Table of Contents .iii
List of Tables & Figures .v
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1
Background 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Purposes and Significance of the Study 3
Framework of the Research 5
Research Questions and Hypotheses ..5
Definition of Terms ..6
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8
Definition 8
Causal Factors of Social Loafing ..9
Group size & Social Loafing ..9
Self-interest & Social Loafing 10
Social Impact theory and Social Loafing 11
Self-attention and Social Loafing 13
Task Characteristics and social Loafing 14
Evaluation Potential and Social Loafing 14
Dispensability of Effort and Social Loafing 15
Cultural Orientations (I/C) and Social Loafing 15
Hofstede’s Dimensions 15
Reasons to Choose I/C 17
Definition of I/C 21
I/C & Kinship or Family 22
I/C & Attributes in Group 22
Other Categorization 25
CHAPTER III. RESEACH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 28
Participants 28
Descriptive Statistics Results of IC Students 30
Instruments 32
Questionnaire 32
Rationale of Scale Selection 32
Scale Selection & Questionnaire Development 33
Pilot Studies 35
First Pilot Study 35
Second Pilot Study 36
Procedures 38
CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 40
Reliability of the Questionnaire for the Formal Research 40
Descriptive Statistics Results of Three Scales 41
Report on Data Analysis of Research Hypotheses 41
Summary of Findings 54
CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 57
General Findings 57
Major Findings 58
Pedagogical Suggestions 60
Limitations of the research and suggestions for further studies 61
References 63
Appendix 69
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