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研究生:許彩
研究生(外文):Ts'ai Hsu
論文名稱:國軍危機傳播管理之研究-聯兵旅層級
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Management of Crisis Communication in ROC Armed Forces- Combined Arms Brigade Level
指導教授:朱延智朱延智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen - Chih Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明道大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:軍事危機、危機管理、危機傳播、傳播策略、層級分析法
外文關鍵詞:Military CrisisCrisis ManagementCrisis CommunicationCommunication StrategyAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
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危機可發生於組織的任何階層之中,大可至國際間的戰爭行動,小可至因情境變化所引起的個人危機。國軍對危機的管理之良窳,將直接影響到國家安全、社會安定、國軍形象與士氣的維護,進而影響到國防整體戰力之發揮。本研究透過理論架構及個案的實證探討等過程,經過德菲法的專家問卷分析,而產生傳播策略的決策模式。主要研究成果如下:
一、 本研究從危機理論著手,針對組織危機管理的概念、方法與組織
運作,做理論性的探究,藉由軍事相關個案輔助說明,將軍隊危機管理現況,分析潛在的危機類型,並納入危機傳播策略,整合成一完整的架構,讓其理論於更臻完善,使相關的軍事決策人員瞭解到其後的重要意涵。
二、本研究就國軍組織特性考量軍事安全以致於意外事件發生的構成要素,建構出軍隊危機管理之動態模式,以作為軍隊處理危機的參考方向與策進作法。
三、從發言人的慎選至各階段與媒體關係的建構,運用傳播策略探究國軍在危機發生時和媒體的公眾關係與傳播策略,使國軍在面對危機時能有思考與作業脈絡可依循,並可作為國軍在未來傳播策略中的策進作法。
四、為使主觀因素不致影響判斷,本研究不同於過往之質化研究,透過專家以AHP建構軍事傳播的策略模式,改採量化方式呈現,並經由專家決策(Expert Choice)軟體計算,驗證此決策模式有其可行性與適切性,可使決策人員在危機發生時能更準確的應用。
Crisis may occur in any echelon of a society, ranging from military operations around the globe to personal crisis resulting from some contextual changes. Failure to handle the crisis may directly influence its image, morale, and social security, even the overall combat power of the national defense, which may, seriously speaking, damage the infrastructure of a nation itself. This thesis, based on the discussions of theoretical structure and case studies, obtains a decision-making model through the questionnaires gathered from the panelists in terms of Delphi method. The major accomplishments are as follows:
1.This thesis tries to deal with crisis in respect of its concept, method and organizational operation from theoretical perspectives. Through military-centered case studies, the present situation of military crisis management is presented to sort out the potential crisis models involved for crisis communication strategies. On this basis, a well-organized structure is established to make the theory more complete, which may help the decision maker in any military echelon realize the core value of crisis management.
2.Based on the characteristics of military organization, this thesis aims to construct a dynamic model for military crisis management, ranging from security issues to accidents, so as to bring over feasible course of action and better solutions.
3.Crisis communication strategies in this thesis are used to explore public relations built and communication strategies used while military crisis occurs. The strategies, from the selection of spokesperson to building relationships with the media in each developing phase of a crisis, offer ways of critical thinking model for better solutions out of the strategies used to tackle the crisis that the military may face in the future.
4.To avoid unnecessary impact caused by objective factors, a decision-making model for military crisis communication strategies is built quantitatively, rather than qualitatively as used to be, through AHP and the computation of Expert Choice, which is proved a model for both feasibility and applicability and can offer decision maker a more precise way to handle crisis while it occurs.
中文摘要…………………………………………………….…….…..i
英文摘要………………………………………………………...……ii
謝誌…………………………………………………….………….…iv
目錄…………………………………………………….…….…….…v
圖目錄………………………………………………….……..….…viii
表目錄………………………………………………….…………..…x

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………….……1
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………...…………1
第二節 研究目的………………………………….……………………..3
第三節 論文架構與組織……………………………...…………………5
第四節 研究範圍與限制…………………………………...……………6

第二章 文獻探討…………………………………….………………8
第一節 危機特性說明………………………………..………………….9
一、危機管理…………………………………………….……………9
二、危機的特性……………………………………………..……….10
三、危機的迷思…………………………………..…………………..12
第二節 危機管理的階段活動………………………………...………..13
一、危機爆發前的規劃與預防…………………………..…………..13
二、危機爆發時的處理與因應…………………………………..…..21
三、危機爆發後的復原與策進…………………………..…………..26
第三節 危機傳播………………………………………………….……28
一、 危機類型(crisis type)…………………………………………31
二、 證據真實度(veracity of evidence)……………………..…….31
三、 損害程度(damage)…………………………………..………..31
四、 組織過去的表現(performance history)……………..………31
第四節 形象修護策略………………………………………….………32

第三章 研究方法……………………...…………………………….……38
第一節 文獻分析法…………………………………………………….38
第二節 個案研究法…………………………………………………….38
第三節 德菲法(Delphi)………………...………………………………38
第四節 層級分析法………………………………….…………………40
第五節 專家決策(Expert Choice)軟體………...…………………….42

第四章 聯兵旅層級之危機管理機制…………………...…...………..44
第一節 執行方略與規劃……………………………………….………44
第二節 軍事危機要素……………………………………...…………..46
第三節 聯兵旅層級之危安管理……………………………………….48
第四節 小結………………………………………………………...…..52

第五章 聯兵旅級的危機傳播管理策略…………………………...…...56
第一節 慎選發言人………………………………………………….…56
第二節 聯兵旅級危機各階段的媒體管理………………………….…59
第三節 形象修護傳播策略………………………………………….…62
第四節 小結………………………………………………………...…..65

第六章 危機傳播策略模式構建與案例驗證……….……………..67
第一節 建構危機傳播策略模式……………………………….………67
第二節 案例說明………………………………………………….……68
第三節 Expert Choice軟體驗證………………………………...…….73
第四節 小結………………….…………………………………………81

第七章 結 論………………… …………………………………...………..83
第一節 研究成果………………………………………………...……83
第二節 管理策略意涵……………………………………………… .84
第三節 未來研究………………………………………...……………85

參考文獻……………………………..………………………………….……87
附錄………...…………………...….……………………………….…………94
中文文獻
書籍
1.朱延智,2003,企業危機管理,第2版,台北:五南。
2.朱愛群,2002,危機管理-解除災難謎咒,台北:五南。
3.吳宜蓁,2002,危機傳播-公共關係與語藝觀點理論與實證。台北:五南。
4.國防部,2002,國軍軍紀維護實施規定。
5.國防部,2004,中華民國九十三年國防報告書。
6.陸軍軍官學校軍事管理科學研究中心,2006,軍事管理學,台北:鼎茂。
7.陸軍高級中學,2000,士官長正規班危機管理概論講義。
8.陸軍總部,2003,陸軍救援災害教範,國軍通用準則。

期刊
1.朱延智,1998,軍事痛苦指數與危機處理,中華戰略月刊,第87期,冬季號,第147-182頁。
2.李炳友,2001,媒體在軍隊危機管理的角色,國防雜誌,第十七期,第五卷,第52-62頁。
3.游梓翔、溫偉群,2002,從語藝取徑評析-在璩美鳳事件中的形象修護策略,世新大學學報,第42期,第 209-231頁。
4.黃懿慧,2001,危機回應-淺談形象修復策略,公關雜誌,第42期,第38-41頁。
5.裴文、李景隆,2006,I.A.P.E.軍事危機管理模式-以陸軍軍事危機管理運用成效為例,危機管理學刊,第3期,第45-56頁。
6.鄧振源、曾國雄,1989,層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用(下),中國統計學報,第27期,第7卷,第1-20頁。
7.鄧振源、曾國雄,1989,層級分析法(AHP)的內涵特性與應用(上),中國統計學報,第27期,第6卷,第5-22頁。
8.譚懋輔,1998,淺談危機與部隊管理,國防雜誌,第十四期,第一卷,第77-86頁。

論文
1.卜耀宗,2005,國軍部隊危機類型、管理效能與精進作為之研究,國防大學國防決策科學研究所碩士論文。
2.方鵬程 等,2005,從國軍軍官軍事新聞工作認知論軍聞教育精進作法之研究,第八屆國軍軍事社會科學學術研討會論文集,第111-153頁。
3.李明哲,2006,軍隊運用學習型組織於危機管理實務之探討,國防大學政治研究所碩士論文。
4.林建山,1987,服務業實際界限及其定義探討,服務業管理學所論文研討會論文集。
5.林智巨,2003,華人面子功夫與形象修復策略-以台灣女性政治人物面子威脅事件為例。世新大學傳播研究所未出版碩士論文。
6.陳靜華,2004,企業危機之形象修復策略與學習效果研究-以華航空難為例。輔仁大學大眾傳播研究所碩未出版士論文。
7.黃坤保,2004,軍隊危機管理之研究-以精誠七五之八號教育召集為例,國防管理學院國防決策科學研究所碩士論文。
8.歐振文,2003,形象修護策略與危機情境-國軍傳播個案研究,世新大學傳播研究所碩士論文。
9.鄧振源,1997,國防科研計畫評選之研究,行政院國家科學委員會會專題研究計畫成果報告(NSC 86-2623-D211-001),華梵大學工業管理學系所。

譯著
1.林文益、鄭安鳳 譯 ,2002,危機管理與傳播,台北:風雲,譯自 Coombs W.T., Ongoing Crisis Communication Planning, Managing and Responding.
2.莊 靖譯,2003,直覺-為決策之本,台北:商周出版,譯自 Klein G. A., Intuition at work: why developing your gut instincts will make you better at what you do.
3.趙忠傑 譯,美軍安全管理要則,黃埔雙月刊,第536期,第73-77頁。
4.韓應寧 譯,1987,危機管理,台北:天下。譯自 Fink S., Management-Planning for the Inevitable.
英文文獻
1.Benoit, W. L. (1995). Accounts, excuses, and apologies: A theory of image restoration strategies. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
2.Benoit, W. L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-186.
3.Benoit, W. L. (2000). Another visit to the theory of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly, 48, 40-43.
4.Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1994). AT&T: Apologies Are Not Enough. Communication Quarterly, 42, 75-88.
5.Benoit, W. L., Gullifor, P., & Panici, D.A. (1991). President Reagan’s Defensive Discourse on the Iran-contra Affair. Communication studies, 42, 272-294.
6.Coombs W.T. (1995). The development of guidelines for selection of the appropriate crisis response strategies, Management Communication Quarterly, 4, pp.447-476.
7.Coombs, W. T. (1999b). Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding. CA: Sage.
8.Coombs, W. Timothy (1995). Choosing the Right Words-The Development of Guidelines for the Selection of the “Appropriate” Crisis-Response Strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 4, 447-476.
9.Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2002). Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: initial tests of the situational crisis communication. Theory Management Quarterly, 16(2), 165-186.
10.Coombs, W. T. (2004). West pharmaceutical’s explosion: structuring crisis discourse knowledge. Public Relations Review, 30(2), 467-473.
11.Englehart, B. (1995). Crisis communication: Communication under fire. Journal of management Advocacy Communication, 1, 23-28.
12.Fearn-Banks, M. (1996). Crisis Communication: A Casebook Approach. New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
13.Heath, R. L. (1994). Management of corporate communication: From interpersonal contacts to external affairs. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
14.Heath, R. L. (1997). Strategic Issues Management—Organizations and Public Policy Challenges. CA: Sage
15.Horsley, S. I. and Barker, R. T. (2002). Toward A Synthesis Model for Crisis Communication in the Public Sector. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 16 (4), 406–40.
16.Huang, Y, H., Lin, Y. H., & Su, S. H. (2005). Crisis communicative strategies in Taiwan: category, continuum, and cultural implication. Public Relations Review, 31, 229-238.
17.Huang, Y. H. (2006). Crisis situation, communication strategies, and media coverage: A multi-case study revisiting the communicative response model. Communication Research, 33 (3), 180-205.
18.MaCroskey, J. C. (1997). An introduction to rhetorical communication (7th ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
19.Marra, F. J. (2004). Excellent Crisis Communication: Beyond Crisis Plans. In D. P. Millar & R. L. Heath, (Eds.), Responding to crisis: A rhetorical approach to crisis communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
20.Martin, M. R., & Boynton, L. A. (2005). From liftoff to landing: NASA’s crisis communication and resulting coverage following the Challenger and Columbia tragedies, Public Relations Review, 31, 253-261.
21.Mendelson, A. (2005). Image is everything. International Communication Association 2005 Annual Meeting Conference Paper. New York.
22.Mitroff, Ian I. and Pearson, C. M. (1993). Crisis management: A Diagnostic Guide for Improving Your Organization’s Crisis-Preparedness, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
23.Nudell M. and Antokl N. (1988). In Case of emergency: A Handbook for effective and crisis management, Lexington, MA:Lexington Books.
24.Numamaker Jay F. Jr., Weber E. Sue, and Chen Minder. (1989). Organizational crisis Management Systems: Planning for Intelligent Action, Journal of Management Information Systems, 5(4), pp.7-32.
25.Pill, J. (1971). The Delphi Method: Substance, context, a critique and an annotated bibliography, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 5, pp. 57- 71.
26.Ram’ee J. (1987). Corporate Crisis: The Aftermath, Management Solution, March, pp.19-22.
27.Ray, S. J. (1999). Strategic Communication in Crisis Management: Lessons from the Airline Industry. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
28.Reynolds, B. (2006). Crisis and emergency risk communication: Pandemic influenza. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
29.Rose, G. (2006). How to meet the press. State Legislatures, 32:32-33.
30.Rowe, G.,G. Wright, and F. Bolger (1991). Delphi: A Reevaluation of Research and Theory, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 39, pp. 235- 251.
31.Satty, T.L. (1994). Fundamentals of Decision Making and Priority Theory with the AHP. RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.
32.Satty, T.L., (1977). A Scaling Method For Priorities in Hierarchical Structures, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 15(2), pp. 234-281.
33.Seeger, M. W., Sellnow, T. L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2001). Public relations and crisis communication: organizing and chaos. Handbook of Public Relations, 155-165. CA:Sage Publications.
34.Seeger, M. W., Sellnow, T. L., Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and organizational crisis. Westport, CN: Praeger.
35.Sellnow, T. L., Seeger, M. W., & Ulmer, R. R. (2002). Chaos theory, informational needs, and natural disasters. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 30(4), 269-292.
37.Sellnow, T. L., & Ulmer, R. R. (2004). Ambiguity as an inherent factor in organizational crisis communication. In D. P. Millar & R. L. Heath, (Eds.), Responding to crisis: A rhetorical approach to crisis communication (pp. 251-262). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
38.Shefer, D.and J. Stroumsa(1981). The Delphi Method: A decision-making tool for strict-lighting planning, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 15(5), pp. 263- 276.
39.Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., & Seeger, M. W. (2007). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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