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研究生:王思維
論文名稱:橡潤式阻尼器設計與分析
論文名稱(外文):Design and analysis of the Lubed rubber damper
指導教授:李志鴻李志鴻引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明新科技大學
系所名稱:精密機電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:橡潤式有限元素法接觸阻尼器橡膠
外文關鍵詞:lubed rubber damperfinite element analysiscontactdamperrubber
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橡潤式阻尼器,設計簡單,不需要精密配合之零件,且具有不漏油與低成本兩大特點,因此成功地取代了慣有之流體阻尼器。採用所謂橡潤式阻尼器的設計方式,可成功去除流體避震器的漏油問題,使所開發的避震器在各方面性能更優於市場所需。因此,本研究將著重於開發橡潤式阻尼器之技術。藉由實驗方法所量測到,橡膠在不同的壓力、粗糙度、速度、潤滑油塗佈量所得的平均接觸壓力下的摩擦係數,各別探討物理特性,並以潤滑油進入角度之特性來探討在微量潤滑油的狀況下,試片之間是否有差異性,以驗證液動潤滑理論所提出潤滑油的進入角度會影響摩擦之特性。最後以潤滑油之歷史影響來觀察潤滑油是否受到壓力改變之特性。為了能夠獲得更為正確、客觀的結論並且有效率的進行實驗的設計與規劃,採用實驗設計法來進行實驗,有系統之規劃實驗的因子與水準及實驗順序,並利用統計方法來分析資料。
雖然橡膠元件之摩擦力的計算相當複雜,但本研究已成功地推導出摩擦係數為常數時之摩擦力理論估計式,並針對初始間隙、幾何外型比例、摩擦係數、楊氏係數觀察彈性體元件在不同的參數下的物理現象。當摩擦係數為壓力之函數時,摩擦力亦可用一種簡單之數值方式來估算之,以降低預估的誤差量。但是較精準的求解還是必須以有限元素法得知,因為它能夠提供在接觸邊界上所產生的摩擦行為且容許所建構之模型是採用超彈性材料,並且應用neo-hookean之應變能來準確的計算出之應力與應變之關係。因此,本研究亦使用有限元素法分析彈性體元件,並以單一的接觸條件與多段的接觸條件來分析彈性體元件,並與摩擦力學比較觀察兩者之間的差異性。
Lubed rubber damper, the design of it is simple, and does not need to incorporate parts of high precision. It has two major characteristics - no oil leakage and low cost, so it can successfully replace the conventional fluid damping devices. The research in this thesis mainly focuses on developing the technology of the lubed rubber damper. By measuring the friction coefficient of the rubber at various contact pressures, surface roughness, sliding speeds, and amounts of lubricant, physical characteristics of the surface interface are investigated. By testing on the entrance angle of the lubricant, we study the state of light lubrication and compare the results with the prediction of the hydrodynamic lubrication theory. We also make observation on whether the state of lubricant can be altered by the pressure history. In order to obtain correct and objective results of the experiment, we adopt basic experimental design theory for design of the experiment. The order of factor and level of experiment is formulated and the method of statistics is used to analyze the data.
Though the calculation of the frictional force of the rubber is quite complicated, in this research we successfully derive the frictional force for the case of constant friction coefficient. The theoretical model incorporates parametric influences of initial gap, component dimensions, coefficient of friction, and the Young's modulus. When the coefficient of friction is regarded as a function of the contact pressure, frictional force can also be estimated by a simple numerical method. More accurate solution is obtained by the finite element analysis, as it offers capability to include complex friction parameters and nonlinear kinematics and material behavior such as hyperelasticity. Using the Neo-Hookean model, we construct nonlinear finite element models and compare the FE results with the previous closed-form solutions.
摘 要 i
Abstract ii
誌 謝 iii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 橡潤式阻尼器 2
1.3 文獻回顧 5
第二章 基礎摩擦實驗 10
2.1 實驗設備 10
2.2 往復運動式摩擦測試機台 11
2.3 摩擦試片的設計 13
2.4 試片之熱壓模具設計 16
2.5 試片之製作心得 18
2.6 摩擦實驗 20
2.6.1 實驗方法 21
2.6.2 塗佈方式 21
2.6.3 實驗流程 22
2.7 實驗設計與規劃 23
2.7.1 實驗設計流程 25
2.7.2 迴歸模型之檢定與評估-變異數分析法(ANOVA) 26
2.7.3 迴歸模型之檢定與評估-迴歸方程式 28
2.7.4 迴歸模型之檢定與評估-迴歸方程式之檢驗 30
2.8 實驗結果與討論 31
2.8.1 粗糙度之效應 32
2.8.2 接觸壓力之效應 35
2.8.3 速度之效應 37
2.8.4 潤滑劑原始塗佈量之效應 39
2.8.5 進入角度之效應 41
2.8.6 潤滑油歷史影響之特性 44
第三章 摩擦力學分析 46
3.1 彈性體元件之介紹 46
3.2 理論之推導 48
3.3 摩擦係數為固定之結果 53
3.3.1 初始間隙之影響 54
3.3.2 幾何外型尺寸之影響 55
3.3.3 摩擦係數之影響 56
3.3.4 楊氏係數之影響 57
3.3.5 有限元素分析 57
3.4 摩擦係數為變數以數值方式分析 60
第四章 有限元素分析 64
4.1 有限元素模型之介紹 64
4.2 有限元素法計算流程 66
4.3 選擇材料模型及元素種類 68
4.4 建構模型之幾何形狀與網格化 71
4.5 設定接觸條件 72
4.6 邊界條件與求解 75
4.7 大應變分析 76
4.8 模型為單一接觸條件與結果 77
4.9 模型為多段接觸條件 79
4.9.1 分段設定與網格數分析 80
4.9.2 分段設定求解之收斂準則 81
4.9.3 摩擦係數為壓力函數之計算結果 83
第五章 結論 90
參考文獻 94
附錄[A] 96
附錄[B] 100
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