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研究生:林詩淳
研究生(外文):Lin, Shih Chun
論文名稱:慢性失眠者與情境性失眠高危險族群之壓力因應與失眠的關係
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship of Coping and Insomnia in Chronic Insomniacs and Normal Sleepers Vulnerable to Stress-related Sleep Disturbance
指導教授:楊建銘楊建銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Chien Ming
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:失眠情境性失眠壓力因應睡眠相關安全行為
外文關鍵詞:insomniaadjustment insomniacopingsleep related safety behaviors
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研究目的:失眠為國人常見的健康問題,造成患者夜間睡眠的痛苦,對白天生活品質也有明顯的影響,站在預防失眠慢性化的角度切入,找出情境性失眠高危險群的心理病理特性,應可為防治失眠疾患提供更積極的建議。本研究目的一即是想透過與好眠組的比較,討論壓力因應風格、持續失眠相關病因(對睡眠不適當認知、睡眠相關安全行為、身心激發程度)在失眠高危險族群及慢性失眠者的特性為何。第二個目的則想驗證失眠持續因素對失眠的影響路徑,並探討壓力因應風格在失眠持續模式中的影響性為何。

研究方法:本研究以橫斷式問卷調查法收集資料,蒐集有效問卷情境性失眠高風險群組74份、好眠組75份、與慢性失眠組62份,總共211份有效問卷。統計方法則根據不同研究目的分別採用單因子變異數分析及結構方程模型的路徑分析進行資料處理。

研究結果:慢性失眠者比好眠者與慢性失眠者有更高的睡眠不適當認知、更多睡眠相關安全行為更高的睡前激發程度。慢性失眠者與情境性失眠高危險族群在面對壓力時,也比好眠者使用較多的「社會支持、情緒調節與發洩的調解」、「逃避」、「問題解決、重釋與接受」等因應策略。此外,情境性失眠高危險族群也比好眠者用更多的睡眠相關安全行為來因應疲憊或睡不好的狀況。另外,本研究路徑分析結果發現睡眠不適當認知會透過安全行為及激發程度而影響失眠,且在考驗各個壓力因應風格對失眠持續模式之影響時,發現較一致的結果是逃避因應可能會增加個體使用更多睡眠相關安全行為而惡化失眠

研究討論:研究結果支持過去理論認為睡眠不適當認知、睡眠相關安全行為及睡前激發程度為失眠的持續因子。為預防情境性失眠高危險族群其失眠症狀慢性化,建議重點應放在睡眠的衛生教育,並且不只是教導適當因應失眠的行為,重要的是需包括增強對失眠處理的控制感、建立適當合理的藥物使用概念、矯正對失眠後果的災難化想法。最後,過去少有其他研究討論逃避因應風格與失眠的關係,建議對此有興趣的研究者可對逃避因應風格與失眠的關係做進一步的重覆驗證與探討。
OBJECTIVE: The goals of the study are to examine (1) the differences of coping, dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, sleep related safety behaviors and pre-sleep arousals among chronic insomniacs, normal sleepers vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbance and good sleepers (2) the interactions of coping with other etiological factors in the model of persistent insomnia.

METHOD: The sample was composed of 211 participants. Participants were asked to complete a set of questionnaires, including the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), the Insomnia Severity Index, the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale, the Sleep-Related Behaviour Questionnaire, the Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep questionnaire, COPE, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. The participants were categorized into three subgroups, 75 good sleepers, 74 normal sleepers vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbance, and 62 chronic insomniacs, according to clinical interview and/or their scores on the FIRST.

RESULT: The results showed that chronic insomniacs reported more dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, sleep related safety behaviors and pre-sleep arousals than the other groups. In addition, chronic insomniacs and normal sleepers vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbance used more coping styles of “problem solving, positive reinterpretation and acceptance”, “social support, focus on and venting of emotions”, and “avoidance” than good sleepers. Also, normal sleepers vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbance reported more safety behaviors to cope insomnia than good sleepers. Furthermore, the path analysis showed that the safety behaviors and arousal play an important mediating role between dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep and insomnia in chronic insomniacs. Finally, data showed that avoidance coping could predict the frequency of sleep related safety behaviors.

CONCLUSION: The results imply that in order to prevent normal sleepers vulnerable to stress-related sleep disturbance from becoming chronic insomniacs, sleep hygiene education program should incorporate methods that are designed to reduce maladaptive sleep beliefs and sleep related safety behaviors. The relationship found between avoidance coping and insomnia is also of interest and require replication in future researches.
第一章、緒論 6
第二章、文獻探討 8
第一節、失眠的定義與流行病學研究 8
第二節、慢性失眠的病因理論 9
第三節、慢性失眠者對一般壓力的因應 13
(一)壓力因應的定義及理論 13
(二)壓力因應傾向與失眠 15
第四節、慢性失眠的病因討論 16
(一)對睡眠不適當的認知、信念與失眠 17
(二)干擾睡眠的行為與失眠 18
(三)身心激發狀態與失眠 20
第五節、研究問題與假設 22
第三章、研究方法 26
第一節、研究對象 26
第二節、研究工具 27
第三節、研究程序與資料分析 36
(一)研究程序 36
(二)資料分析 37
第四章、研究結果 39
第一節、失眠高危險族群與慢性失眠者的心理病理特性 39
第二節、因應風格與持續失眠病因之路徑關係 45
(一) 基本統計資料分析 45
(二) 持續失眠的理論模式驗證 49
第五章、研究討論 64
第一節、情境失眠高危險族群、慢性失眠者於失眠的心理病理特性 64
第二節、失眠持續模式之驗證 70
第三節、壓力因應風格對失眠持續模式之影響 71
第四節、研究貢獻 74
第五節、研究限制與未來研究建議 75
中文參考文獻 77
REFERENCE 79
附錄 84
附錄一、受試者篩選問卷 84
附錄二、睡眠品質(PSQI) 85
附錄三、失眠易感程度(FIRST) 87
附錄四、自我狀態量表(CES-D) 88
附錄五、失眠困擾(ISI) 89
附錄六、睡眠身心狀態(PSAS) 90
附錄七、睡眠相關行為(SRBS) 91
附錄八、睡眠信念(DBAS-16) 93
附錄九、壓力因應風格(COPE) 95


表 目 次
表2-1.研究假設一之圖示…………………………………………………24
表3-1.壓力因應因素分析四因素與Caver等人(1989)的因素分析對照表……………………………………………………………………………36
表4-1.好眠組、情境性失眠高危險族群、慢性失眠組之人口學變項及臨床特徵……………………………………………………………………………40
表4-2.「因應風格」、「對睡眠不適當認知」、「睡眠相關安全行為」、與「睡前身心激發程度」於好眠組、情境性失眠高危險族群、及慢性失眠組三組的差異………………………………………………………………………44
表4-3.慢性失眠受試者之失眠嚴重度、睡前身心激發程度、睡眠相關安全行為、對睡眠不適當認知及壓力因應各因素之描述統計…………………46
表4-4.正常睡眠受試者之失眠嚴重度、睡前身心激發程度、睡眠相關安全行為、對睡眠不適當認知及壓力因應各因素之描述統計…………………47
表.4-5.慢性失眠組之失眠嚴重度、睡前身心激發程度、睡眠相關安全行為、對睡眠不適當認知及壓力因應風格之相關係數表………………………48
表.4-6.正常睡眠組之失眠嚴重度、睡前身心激發程度、睡眠相關安全行為、對睡眠不適當認知及壓力因應風格之相關係數表..……………………48
表4-7.直接效果模型(模型一)與調節效果模型(模型二)之適合度指標…51
表4-8.不同模型於兩樣本的SMC表………………………………………52
表4-9.兩樣本之持續失眠調節模型12個觀察指標之平均數、標準差與相關係數矩陣………………………………………………………………………54
表4-10.兩樣本之持續失眠病因調節模型的估計參數顯著性考驗及標準化係數值……………………………………………………………………………55
表5-1.研究假設一…………………………………………………………65
表5-2.研究結果一…………………………………………………………65

圖 目 次
圖2-1.Spielman 與Glovinsky的失眠三因素模式……………………10
圖2-2.心理/行為因素與神經心理系統交互影響睡眠模式………………12
圖2-3.研究假設二:壓力因應風格與失眠持續病因模式之關係………………………………………………………………………………25
圖3-1.受試者篩選過程與統計分析流程………………………………………………………………………………38
圖4-1.兩組樣本模型估計之標準化參數暨路徑分析圖………………………………………………………………………………53
圖4-2.慢性失眠者之持續失眠嚴重度相關病因模式的標準化路徑係數圖………………………………………………………………………………58
圖4-3.正常睡眠者之持續失眠嚴重度相關病因模式的標準化路徑係數圖………………………………………………………………………………62
圖5-1. 慢性失眠者與正常睡眠者壓力因應風格影響失眠持續模式之對照圖………………………………………………………………………………71
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