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研究生:陳勳慧
研究生(外文):Chen, Hsun Hui
論文名稱:英美幹細胞研究之政治分析
論文名稱(外文):The political analysis of stem cell research in Britain and the United States
指導教授:何思因何思因引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho, Szu Yin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:政治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:胚胎幹細胞研究體細胞核移轉技術複製人類受精與胚胎學法
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一國的社會價值、歷史文化與政治制度影響國內各個不同行為者的行為,進而決定立法的發展。本論文以英美兩國幹細胞研究政策的立法演進為主題,首先介紹幹細胞研究的科學發展。其次闡述墮胎政治的歷史遺緒對於英美兩國幹細胞研究政策立法的影響。再來是著眼於支持和反對幹細胞研究的利益團體採取何種遊說策略以達到目的,以及政府與國會如何回應利益團體的要求、因應國內外研究發展,形成或修正幹細胞研究的政策。

從1978年第一個試管嬰兒Louise Brown出生開始,到後來複製羊Dolly誕生、人與動物跨物種混合胚胎等重大科學事件,「捍衛人類尊嚴」與「保障研究自由」兩者間就不斷地拉鋸。不斷前進的科學研究永遠走在法律的前端,挑戰人們的價值觀,立法者需要時時跟上研究發展的腳步,確保研究在大眾所容許的界限內進行。

英國在1990年通過「人類受精與胚胎學法」並成立「人類受精與胚胎學管理局」,是第一個針對胚胎及幹細胞研究做全面性立法規範的國家。對於幹細胞研究的管理是採「正面表列同意」、「前端管理」的模式,公私部門的研究在進行之前都必須取得「人類受精與胚胎學管理局」的授權同意。

美國對於幹細胞研究則是採取「負面表列禁止」、「終端管理」的模式,符合市場經濟小而美政府的傳統。只規範使用聯邦經費補助的研究,不規範私部門研究的部分。但是對於公私部門研究的臨床應用嚴格把關,確保安全性及有效性。
摘要 I
謝辭 II
目次 III
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
略語表 VI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻檢閱 3
第三節 研究架構與章節安排 7
第二章 胚胎及幹細胞之科學研究 9
第一節 幹細胞介紹 12
第二節 幹細胞研究爭議 29
第三章 英國 33
第一節 墮胎法改革 34
第二節 立法辯論過程 38
第三節 HFE Act與HFEA 50
第四節 小結 60
第四章 美國 62
第一節 胚胎定位及墮胎判例 64
第二節 停滯的年代 72
第三節 柯林頓政府時期 74
第四節 布希政府時期 80
第五節 小結 88
第五章 結論與檢討 89
參考文獻 93

表目錄
表2. 1各類幹細胞的優缺點 25
表5. 1英美兩國的差異 91

圖目錄
圖2. 1幹細胞的位階 14
圖2. 2 體細胞核移轉技術-以複製羊Dolly為例 17
圖2. 3動物細胞的構造 18
圖2. 4 體細胞核移轉技術的臨床運用 19
圖2. 5著床前胚胎之發展 23
圖2. 6 人類胚胎組織之發展 24
圖4. 1 符合聯邦經費補助標準的人類胚胎幹細胞 82
圖4. 2胚胎幹細胞培養技術 83
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