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研究生:王彤心
研究生(外文):Wang, Tung Hsin
論文名稱:再探做筆記對英語非母語學生的學術聽力效益
論文名稱(外文):Re-visiting the Efficacy of Note-taking in Academic Listening for L2 students
指導教授:崔正芳崔正芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsui, Cheng Fang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:學術聽力做筆記
外文關鍵詞:academic listeningnote-taking
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許多ESL及L1學生認為做筆記是有利於學術聽力的策略。本研究的目的在於重新檢視有否做筆記對於英語非母語的學習者在學術聽力理解以及回憶上的影響。此外,本研究也比較程度高與程度低學習者所做之筆記,並調查個人對於做筆記的信念及習慣。
本研究一共有225位大一學生參與從TOEFL-IPT之中所篩選出的學術演講聽力測驗。過程中,學生依個人習慣決定是否記下筆記。於聽力測驗結束後,隨即讓有寫筆記的學生填答回溯問卷。於一星期後, 所有做筆記及不做筆記學生在沒有複習機會的情況下,進行回憶測驗。所有學生也填答關於做筆記之信念與習慣的問卷。
本研究的結果如下: 1)即使大多數學生對於做筆記皆認為有助其聽力理解,在本研究中,做筆記幾乎沒有發揮效益。2) 對於程度高的學生而言,做筆記並未對其聽力理解產生幫助。3) 對於程度低的學生而言,做筆記仍然沒有顯著的效益。4) 在記憶測試方面,做筆記與否似乎也沒有顯著差異。5)程度高的學生傾向於選擇寫下重要概念,程度低的學生傾向於隨意記下聽到的單字。
本研究根據以上五個方向所得結果,進一步提供相關建議,作為教育學者,
教師,以及學生們參考。
Note-taking for ESL and L1 learners is widely recognized as one of the potentially beneficial academic listening strategies. The purpose of the present study was to re-examine the effect of note-taking for L2 learners in listening comprehension and retention on note-taking/non-note-taking conditions. Besides, the comparison between the notes from the high and low proficiency L2 learners was conducted. Some note-taking beliefs and habits from the L2 learners were also investigated.
This study adopted a quantitative method, and the subjects were 225 freshmen in one university who took the listening comprehension test from the TOEFL-IPT lectures and took notes when they felt necessary. Following the lecture comprehension test, subjects who took notes were given a retrospective questionnaire. One week later, all subjects took a retention test which was derived directly from the lectures without review. After the retention test, all subjects were asked to complete a general perception questionnaire on note-taking.
The major findings were summarized as follows: 1) Note-taking exerted little facilitative influence on comprehension performance even though most learners assumed the positive effect was there. 2) Note-taking did not help high proficiency subjects on comprehension of the TOEFL-IPT lecture listening. 3) Note-taking seemed to have limited merits for low proficiency subjects in comprehension. 4) No significant mean difference of the retention scores was found between note-taking and non note-taking group. 5) The high proficiency note takers were initiated to take notes by listening to discourse signals ahead of the upcoming of the main ideas, while the low proficiency note takers tended to jot down trivial words randomly.
Finally, pedagogical implications and suggestions derived from previous discussions were presented mainly for teachers and learners.
Acknowledgements------------------------------------------------------------------------iii
Chinese Abstract---------------------------------------------------------------------------x
Abstract--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------xi
List of Tables-------------------------------------------------------------------------------viii
List of Figures-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ix
Chapter One Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Statement of Problem---------------------------------------------------------------2
1.2 Research Questions-----------------------------------------------------------------3
1.3 Significance of the Study----------------------------------------------------------3
1.4 Definition of Terms-----------------------------------------------------------------4
Chapter Two Literature Review---------------------------------------------------------6
2.1 Overview-----------------------------------------------------------------------------6
2.2 Theoretical Background of Note-taking in Listening--------------------------7
2.2.1 Theories of Note-taking----------------------------------------------------------7
2.2.2 Cognitive Processes Underlying Note-taking--------------------------------10
2.3 Other Research Approaches of Note-taking ------------------------------------11
2.3.1 Rate of Speech--------------------------------------------------------------------11
2.3.2 Individual Learning Style Differences-----------------------------------------12
2.3.3 Note-taking Skills----------------------------------------------------------------13
2.3.4 Quality and Quantity of Notes--------------------------------------------------15
2.4 Review of Empirical Evidence on Note-taking---------------------------------18
2.4.1 Studies on Note-taking in General---------------------------------------------18
2.4.2 Studies on Encoding Function--------------------------------------------------21
2.4.3 Studies on External Storage Function -----------------------------------------23
2.5 Summary of Prior Research-------------------------------------------------------25
Chapter Three Research Method-------------------------------------------------------29
3.1 Research Question------------------------------------------------------------------29
3.2 Subjects-------------------------------------------------------------------------------29
3.2.1 Measurement of Subjects’ English Listening Proficiency-------------------29
3.3 Instruments---------------------------------------------------------------------------30
3.3.1 Lecture Listening Comprehension Test----------------------------------------30
3.3.2 Answer Sheets---------------------------------------------------------------------31
3.3.3 Retrospective Questionnaire on Note-taking Behavior----------------------31
3.3.4 General Perception Questionnaire for Note-taking Beliefs-----------------31
3.3.5 Retention Test---------------------------------------------------------------------32
3.4 Procedure----------------------------------------------------------------------------32
3.5 Data Analysis---------------------------------------------------------------------35
3.6 Measurement of the Note Contents--------------------------------------------35
3.7 The Pilot Study-------------------------------------------------------------------35
3.8 Summary of the Pilot Study----------------------------------------------------40
Chapter Four Results-------------------------------------------------------------------43
4.1 Preliminary Analysis------------------------------------------------------------43
4.2 Main Analysis--------------------------------------------------------------------44
4.2.1 Effect of Note-taking----------------------------------------------------------44
4.2.1.1 On Comprehension----------------------------------------------------------44
4.2.1.2 On Retention-----------------------------------------------------------------45
4.2.2 Effects of Note-taking and Proficiency-------------------------------------45
4.2.2.1 On Comprehension----------------------------------------------------------45
4.2.2.2 On Retention-----------------------------------------------------------------46
4.3 Measurements of Notes---------------------------------------------------------47
4.3.1 Scoring of Notes---------------------------------------------------------------47
4.3.2 Notes and Comprehension Performance-----------------------------------48
4.3.3 Notes and Retention Performance------------------------------------------49
4.3.4 Notes of High Proficiency Subjects and Low Proficiency Subjects----50
4.3.5 Circumstantial Cues for Initiation of Notes--------------------------------51
4.4 Findings from the General Perception Questionnaire of All Subjects----53
4.4.1 Findings from the General Perception Questionnaire of the High
Proficiency Subjects-----------------------------------------------------------54
4.4.2 Findings from the General Perception Questionnaire of the Low
Proficiency Subjects-----------------------------------------------------------54
4.5 Findings from the Retrospective Questionnaire of All Note Takers------55
4.5.1 Finding from the Retrospective Questionnaire of the High Proficiency
Note takers------------------------------------------------------------------------56
4.5.2 Findings from the Retrospective Questionnaire of the Low Proficiency
Note takers------------------------------------------------------------------------57
4.6 Summary of the Major Findings-----------------------------------------------57
Chapter Five Discussion---------------------------------------------------------------58
5.1 Effect of Note-taking------------------------------------------------------------58
5.1.1 On Comprehension------------------------------------------------------------58
5.1.2 On Retention-------------------------------------------------------------------61
5.2 Effects of Note-taking and Proficiency---------------------------------------62
5.2.1 On Comprehension------------------------------------------------------------62
5.2.2 On Retention-------------------------------------------------------------------63
5.3 Measurements of Notes---------------------------------------------------------64
5.3.1 Comparison of Notes from High and Low Proficiency Note Takers---64
5.3.2 Circumstantial Cues for Initiation of Notes--------------------------------65
5.4 Other Possible Factors ----------------------------------------------------------65
5.5 Pedagogical Implications-------------------------------------------------------67
5.6 Limitations of the Study --------------------------------------------------------69
5.7 Suggestions for Future Studies ------------------------------------------------70
References--------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
Appendixes-------------------------------------------------------------------------------82
A. TOEFL-IPT Lecture Scripts----------------------------------------------------82
B. TOEFL-IPT Practice Listening Comprehension Test-----------------------84
C. TOEFL-IPT Lecture Listening Comprehension Test------------------------87
D. Retrospective Questionnaire----------------------------------------------------90
E. General Perception Questionnaire----------------------------------------------92
F. Retention Test (Formal Study) --------------------------------------------------94
G. Retention Test (Pilot Study) ----------------------------------------------------96
H. General Perception Questionnaire for All Subjects -------------------------97
I. General Perception Questionnaire for the High Proficiency Subjects------98
J. General Perception Questionnaire for the Low Proficiency Subjects ------99
K. Retrospective Questionnaire for all Note Takers----------------------------100
L. Retrospective Questionnaire for the High Proficiency Note Takers ------102
M. Retrospective Questionnaire for the Low Proficiency Note Takers-------104
N. Responses of the Open-ended Question in the General Perception
Questionnaire----------------------------------------------------------------------106
O. Responses of the Open-ended Questions in the Retrospective Questionnaire----------------------------------------------------------------------107
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Curriculum Bulletin, Los Angeles City Schools. 1971.
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