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研究生:周紹偉
論文名稱:歐美葡萄酒貿易協定與WTO規範合致性研究
論文名稱(外文):The consistency of the agreement between the European community and the United States of America on trade in wine with the WTO agreement
指導教授:楊光華楊光華引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際經營與貿易研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:歐美葡萄酒貿易協定釀造規範TBT協定美國酒類標示地理標示TRIPS協定
外文關鍵詞:Agreement between the European Community and the United States of America on trade in wineOenological practiceTBT AgreementTRIPS AgreementSemi-generic nameGeographical indicationDerogation
相關次數:
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歐美葡萄酒貿易協定於2006年3月10日經歐美雙方簽署後,對於延宕多年之數項關於雙方葡萄酒貿易上之爭議,達成了一定程度之妥協。然雙方所妥協之內容均與WTO協定之規範有衝突之處;然從另一方面觀之,該協定卻有助於美國在其葡萄酒產品使用歐盟地理標示之爭議上,朝向與TRIPS協定較為合致之方向去修正。

歐美葡萄酒貿易協定最主要之爭議可分為兩大部分,一為歐盟關於葡萄酒釀造製程上之規範;另一是美國葡萄酒產品使用歐盟地理標示,本文主要將針對此二議題與WTO協定間之合致性進行探討,以了解該協定所妥協之部分與WTO協定間之合致性。由於歐盟與美國係為WTO內最具影響力之兩大會員,本文最後將探討該協定對於WTO多邊架構以及爭端解決機制上之所衝擊與影響。
The EU-US agreement on trade in wine was signed on March 10, 2006, marking the end of a first phase in wine trading discussions began in 1983. The Agreement addresses several key issues, such as oenological practices, import certification, the use of European geographical indication on the wine label which produced in US and other labeling issues. This thesis is to analyze the most controversial parts of this agreement.

This agreement compromises 17 provisions, there are two parts most controversial: one is the mutual acceptance of the EU-US oenological practice regulations, which would facilitate the trading of wine between the two parties. And the other is that finally U.S. agreed to prohibit new brands from using these names on non-European wine and grandfather those existing uses.

The oenological regulation of EU is more strictly and conservative compare to the related international standard. Moreover, EU ban the import of wine which is not conform with its oenological regulation unless the exporting country meet the Derogation requirement to allow the wine to be imported and circulated in the territory of EU. This article is to analyses the consistency of the EU oenological regulation with the TBT agreement, and the MFN treatment with this derogation.

And the U.S. had allowed the use of specific EU geographical indications, which is called semi-generic names in U.S. regulation, on the wine label for the wine producing in the U.S in its labeling regulation. According to the TRIPS Agreement, the use of EU’s GI is in a continuous matter before 1994 can be excepted from the regulation of additional for GI. This thesis would like to clarify which part of the use of those semi-generic names may or may not except from the context of TRIPS agreement about GI.

Since the wine agreement settle down several issues which violate the WTO agreement, this thesis would like to discuss the impact of the wine agreement to the WTO multilateral system.
第一章 序論..............................................................................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的............................................................................................1
第二節 研究架構........................................................................................................2

第二章 歐美葡萄酒貿易協定之主要背景與內容........................................3
第一節 歐美葡萄酒貿易協定之主要背景................................................................3
第二節 歐美葡萄酒貿易協定之主要內容................................................................5
一、相互承認釀造實務........................................................................................5
二、簡化認證許可程序........................................................................................6
三、美國使用歐盟地理標示................................................................................7
四、原產地名稱與酒類標示................................................................................8
五、傳統用語........................................................................................................8

第三章 歐盟葡萄酒釀造規範與WTO協定.............................................10
第一節 歐盟葡萄酒之進口規範................................................................................11
一、對葡萄酒進口規範之立法背景..................................................................11
二、歐盟對葡萄酒釀造規範之主要爭議..........................................................12
(一) 葡萄酒進口須符合歐盟釀造製程之規定.............................................13
(二) 歐盟釀造製程之規範架構.....................................................................13
1. 對葡萄酒於發酵時添加物質之規範.................................................13
2. 對釀造技術使用之規範.....................................................................14
3. 對特殊釀造製程之規範.....................................................................14

第二節 歐盟釀造規範與WTO協定之衝突.............................................................16
一、釀造規範應屬何協定之管轄......................................................................16
(一)釀造規範是否屬SPS協定所管轄範圍?...............................................16
(二)釀造規範是否屬TBT協定所管轄範圍?..............................................17
1. 歐盟之釀造規範之立法理由是否合乎TBT協定之合法目的?....17
2. 釀造規範是否為TBT協定中的技術規章?....................................18
(a) 產品特性..........................................................................................18
(b) 相關製程及產製方法......................................................................18
(c) 強制性..............................................................................................18
二、TBT協定對技術規章之規範與義務..........................................................20
(一)符合國際標準之義務...............................................................................20
(二)不得對國際貿易造成不必要之障礙.......................................................20
三、歐盟之釀造規範與相關之國際釀造標準之關係......................................21
(一)國際葡萄及葡萄酒組織所定之標準是否屬TBT協定所言之國際標準?............................................................................................................21
1. 是否須經國際機構全體一致之通過.................................................22
2. 該國際標準所規範產品範圍是否與系爭產品相關.........................23
(二)歐盟釀造規範與國際釀造標準有無不合致之處?...............................23
四、歐盟釀造規範是否造成不必要之貿易障礙?..........................................24
(一)第三國採行歐盟釀造規範不合理之處...................................................24
(二)品質之認定方式過於武斷.......................................................................24
第三節 最惠國待遇與歐盟釀造規範之規則免除待遇............................................25
一、歐盟規則免除待遇之授與..........................................................................25
(一)國際經貿協定在歐盟間之效力...............................................................25
(二)歐盟與各國間葡萄酒貿易協定內規則免除之實踐...............................27
二、最惠國待遇概述..........................................................................................29
三、規則免除待遇有無違反最惠國待遇之規定..............................................29

第四章 美國酒類標示規定與TRIPS協定之衝突..................................32
第一節 美國對葡萄酒標示使用地理標示之規範.....................................................33
一、允許使用歐盟地理標示之背景...................................................................33
二、允許使用歐盟地理標示之規範...................................................................34

第二節 與TRIPS協定之合致性...............................................................................35
一、與TRIPS協定23條之合致性........................................................................36
二、與TRIPS協定24.4條之合致性.....................................................................36

第三節 歐美葡萄酒貿易協定對WTO之影響........................................................37
一、歐美葡萄酒貿易協定對爭端解決機制之影響...........................................37
二、歐美葡萄酒貿易協定對地理標示議題未來發展之影響...........................39

第五章 結論.............................................................................................................41
參考資料
附錄 歐美葡萄酒貿易協定主要條文
一、中文書籍

1. 方彬彬,《產地標示之地理保護,公平法與智財法系列(6)》,台北,三民,1995年9月。

2. 陳麗娟,《歐洲共同體貿易法》,台北,五南,1995年。

3. 羅昌發,《國際貿易法》,台北,元照,1999年7月。

4. 顏慶章,《WTO論述文集─台灣國際化之機會與挑戰》,台北,作者自行出版,2005年5月。


二、英文書籍

1. FINK, CARSTEN & KEITH MASKUS (2006), The Debate on Geogaphical Indications In the WTO, TRADE, DOHA AND DEVELOPMENT A WINDOW INTO THE ISSUES, Richard Newfarmer ed.

2. MATSUSHITA, MITSUO, THOMAS J. SCHOENBAUM & PETROS C. MAVROIDIS (2006), THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: LAW, PRACTICE AND POLICY. Oxford, 2nd ed.

3. PINNEY, THOMAS(1989) A HISTORY OF WINE IN AMERICA: FROM BEGINNINGS TO PROHIBITION. Berkeley: University of California Press.


三、英文期刊文章

1. Agdomar, Michelle (2008), Removing the Greek from Feta and Adding Korbel to Champagne: The Paradox of Geographical Indications in International Law, 18 FORDAM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, MEDIA & ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 541-608.

2. Evans, G. E. (2006), The Protection of Geographical Indications After Doha: Quo Vadis? 9 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 575-614.

3. Galpin,Vashti Christina(2006), A COMPARISION OF LEGISLATION ABOUT WINEMAKING ADDITIVES AND PROCESSES, the Cape Wine Academy Paper, available at www.capewineacademy.co.za/seminars/Vgalpin_CWM_Thesis.pdf

4. George, Carol C. (2004), EC-US bilateral on wine: Lower standards quid pro quo for GI protection? 37 TRADE HOT TOPICS 1-7.

5. Hanrahan, Charles E. (2003), Geographical Indications and WTO Negotiations, CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS, RS21569.

6. Hughes, Justin (2006), Champagne Feta and Bourbon: the Spirited Debated about Geographical Indications, 58 HASTINGS LAW JOURNAL 299-386.

7. Josling, Tim(2006), The War on Terroir: Geographical Indications as a Transatlantic Trade Conflict, 57(3) JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 337–363.

8. Lindquist, Leigh Ann(1999), Champagne or Champagne? An Examination of U.S. Failure to Comply with the Geographical Provisions of the TRIPS Agreement, 27 THE GEOGRGIA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 308-344.

9. Monten, Lina(2006), Geographical Indications of Origin: Should They Be Protected and Why? - An Analysis of the Issue From the U.S. and EU Perspectives, 22 SANTA CLARA COMPUTER AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY LAW JOURNAL 315-348.

10. Rose, Brain (2007), No More Whining About Geographical Indications: the 2005 Agreement Between the United States and the European Community on the Trade in Wine, 26 HOUSTON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 732-757.

11. Schnepf, Randy (2003), The International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues, CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS, RL32028.

12. Silva, Mark (2005), Sour Grapes: the Comprimising Effect of the United States’ Failure to Protect Foreign Geographic Indications of Wines, 28 BOSTON COLLEGE INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW REVIEW 197-211.

13. Smitherman, Charles W. (2003), The New Transatlantic Marketplace: A Contemporary Analysis of United States -- European Union Trade Relations and Possibilities for the Future, 12 MINNESOTA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL TRADE 251-297.

14. FOOD STANDARD AUSTRALIA NEWZEALAND FSANZ REPORT(2001),USER GUIDE TO STANDARD 1.3.1-FOOD ADDITIVES, available at http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/Additives_0801.pdf.

15. Waye, Vicki (2005), Assessing Multilateral vs. Bilateral Agreements and Geographical Indications through International Food and Wine, Vol. 14 INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW JOURNAL 56-66.

16. Yue, Chengyan, Stéphan Marette, and John C. Beghin, HOW TO PROMOTE QUALITY PERCEPTION IN WINE MARKETS: BRAND ADVERTISING OR GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION? Center for Agricultural and Rural Development of Iowa State University Working Paper 06-WP 426(August 2006), available at http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/8048CD06-6AB0-4E49-927E-7815857A35D2/0/HowtoPromoteQuality.pdf

17. Zacher, Frances G. (2005), Pass the Parmesan: Geographical Indications in the United States and the European Union-Can there Be Compromise? 19 EMORY INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW 427-463.

四、參考網站

世界貿易組織:www.wto.org

歐盟網站:http://europa.eu/

美國菸酒武器管制局:http://www.ttb.gov/index.shtml

美國駐歐盟大使館:http://useu.usmission.gov/Dossiers/Trade/default.asp

國際葡萄及葡萄酒組織:http://www.oiv.int

聯合國糧農組織:http://www.fao.org

澳洲葡萄酒研究機構分析服務網站:http://www.awri.com.au/industry_development/additives/default.asp
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