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研究生:張明宜
研究生(外文):Chang, Ming Yi
論文名稱:教育體制、學習環境與學生成果之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Education System, Learning Environment and Students' Academic Outcomes
指導教授:王鍾和王鍾和引用關係吳齊殷吳齊殷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Chuag HoWu, Chyi In
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:教育體制學業表現教育改革社會網絡分析多層次成長曲線模型
外文關鍵詞:Education SystemSchool ContextsSchool NetworksSocial Network AnalysisMultilevel Growth Curve ModelTwo-Part Random Effects Model
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This research highlights the importance of considering the degree students’ integration into school classes when estimating school effects. Combining and using two different datasets collected before and after education reform in Taiwan, the study compares school effects under two different education systems in order to answer the question about the efficiency of education reform.
I estimate multilevel growth models to assess how school environments affect changes in students’ initial and change rate of their academic performance across junior high school years. Besides, two-part random-effects models are also introduced into the analyses to testify how school environment influence adolescent performance in their high school enrollments. My results support and extend Blau’s structural theory, revealed that school contexts and school networks directly and indirectly influences students’ performance in their school classes and in their high school enrollments, suggesting students’ outcome are conditioning by the local structure, the school environments. However, through making more friends inside and outside school classes, students still have their own power to modify the environmental impacts on themselves.
With respect to the comparisons of school effects on individuals’ performance under two different education systems in Taiwan, the decreasing peer influences and the decreasing significance of school networks indicate that the school effects gradually decline after the administration of education reform. One should note that simply a little change on education system might alter students, parents, and teachers’ behaviors. The decreasing peer effects and the decreasing school effects on students’ academic performance suggesting that students might change their behaviors on interacting with their friends and change their behaviors at schools in order to jostle higher education after education reform. The increasing cram schooling and the increasing significance of family SES support the inference that students modify their behaviors to come up against the education reform in Taiwan.
These findings suggest the need for more panel datasets collected from the newly cohorts after education reform was administrated for a period and the need for more studies of education reform and school effects, to have more understanding about the mechanisms of school efficiency.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
RESEARCH PURPOSES 12
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 14
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 16
SCHOOL EFFECTS 16
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 20
INDIVIDUAL’S INTEGRATION INTO SCHOOL SYSTEM 22
CONTEXTS AS SOCIAL STRUCTURES 25
NETWORKS AS SOCIAL STRUCTURES 28
COMPARISONS OF TWO EDUCATION SYSTEM 33
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODS 39
RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES 39
RESEARCH SUBJECTS 42
Research Design of Taipei Youth Project 42
Research Design of Taiwan Youth Project 43
Social Network Data 46
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS 47
ANALYTIC STRATEGIES 51
Students’ Academic Performance in Junior High School 51
Students’ High School Placement 57
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 61
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 61
STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCES IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 66
Model of Student Cohort from Old System 67
Model of Student Cohort from New System 70
Comparison of Two Education Systems 76
STUDENTS’ HIGH SCHOOL PLACEMENT 83
Model of Student Cohort from Old System 85
Model of Student Cohort from New System 86
Comparison of Two Education Systems 90
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 94
SCHOOL EFFECTS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE 94
THE INFLUENCES OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS 104
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 108
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 108
IMPLICATIONS 113
LIMITATIONS 114
BIBLIOGRAPHY 128
APPENDICES 129
APPENDIX 1. RESEARCH SCALES 129

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 2.1 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO EDUCATION SYSTEMS 37
TABLE 3.1 RESPONSE RATE OF YPS 43
TABLE 3.2 TYP PHASE I : RESPONSE RATE (2000-2006) 45
TABLE 4.1 STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC RANKS IN JUNIOR HIGH OF ENTRANCE EXAM COHORT 62
TABLE 4.2 STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC RANKS IN JUNIOR HIGH OF COMPETENCY TEST COHORT 62
TABLE 4.3 INDIVIDUAL LEVEL DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENTRANCE EXAM COHORT 63
TABLE 4.4 INDIVIDUAL LEVEL DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE FROM NEW EDUCATION SYSTEM 63
TABLE 4.5 SCHOOL LEVEL DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE FROM THE OLD EDUCATION SYSTEM 64
TABLE 4.6 SCHOOL LEVEL DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE FROM NEW EDUCATION SYSTEM 64
TABLE 4.7 FIXED EFFECT OF MULTILEVEL CUMULATIVE LOGIT MODEL OF ADOLESCENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 73
TABLE 4.8 RANDOM EFFECT OF MULTILEVEL CUMULATIVE LOGIT MODEL OF STUDENT COHORT FORM ENTRANCE EXAM 76
TABLE 4.9 RANDOM EFFECT OF MULTILEVEL CUMULATIVE LOGIT MODEL OF STUDENT COHORT FORM COMPETENCY TEST 76
TABLE 4.10 COMPARISON OF TWO STUDENT COHORTS 77
TABLE 4.11 FIXED EFFECT OF MULTILEVEL CUMULATIVE LOGIT MODEL OF ADOLESCENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL(FULL SAMPLE) 80
TABLE 4.12 RANDOM EFFECT OF MULTILEVEL CUMULATIVE LOGIT MODEL OF ADOLESCENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL(FULL SAMPLE) 82
TABLE 4.13 PARAMETER ESTIMATES AND MODEL COMPARISONS OF MODEL OF HIGH SCHOOL PLACEMENT 87
TABLE 4.14 MODEL FITTING OF MODELING STUDENT COHORT FROM THE OLD EDUCATION SYSTEM 89
TABLE 4.15 MODEL FITTING OF MODELING STUDENT COHORT FROM NEW EDUCATION SYSTEM 89
TABLE 4.16 PARAMETER ESTIMATES ALL SAMPLE MODEL ON ADOLESCENT HIGH SCHOOL PLACEMENT 91
TABLE 4.17 MODEL FITTING OF MODELING ALL STUDENT SAMPLE 92
TABLE 5.1 SUMMARIES OF FINDINGS ABOUT INTEGRATIONS ON PERFORMANCE 95
TABLE 5.2 SUMMARIES OF FINDINGS ABOUT SCHOOL CONTEXT ON PERFORMANCE 99
TABLE 5.3 SUMMARIES OF FINDINGS ABOUT SCHOOL NETWORKS ON PERFORMANCE 101


LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 2.1 BLAU’S OPERATIONAL MODEL 20
FIGURE 2.2 RELATION BETWEEN FRIEND NUMBERS AND WANTING TO BE SOMEONE ELSE 22
FIGURE 2.3 MULTI-OPPORTUNITIES FOR SCHOOL ENTRANCE SYSTEM 34
FIGURE 3.1 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 41
FIGURE 4.1 DISTRIBUTIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL PLACEMENT OF OLD COHORT 83
FIGURE 4.2 DISTRIBUTIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL PLACEMENT OF NEW COHORT 84
FIGURE 5.1 THE INTERACTION EFFECTS OF CLASS TYPE AND PERMEABILITY ON PERCENTILE RANKS 99
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