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研究生:廖珮雯
研究生(外文):Liaw, Pey Wen
論文名稱:卑微與崇高:馬來西亞華文報記者的自我角色認知
論文名稱(外文):Self-perception of Chinese language newspapers' reporters in Malaysia
指導教授:朱立朱立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zhu, Leonardo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:新聞研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:新聞學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:馬來西亞華人自我他者自我認知
外文關鍵詞:Malaysian Chineseselfothersself-identity
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  馬來人、華人和印度人構成馬來西亞的三大種族,馬來人占馬來西亞總人口半數以上,華人和印度人屬少數族群。馬來族群享有憲法上的特權,在政治、經濟、文化、語文、教育上,華人則一直遭受不平等待遇,受到歧視。馬來西亞的報界也反映了這個多種族的不平等特質,馬來文報和英文報具有政治和語言優勢,在社會上具有影響力,而華文報的影響力只侷限在華人圈子。本研究所欲探討的便是:在這種大環境下,馬來西亞華文報記者角色的自我認知。

  本論文以Cooley的「鏡中自我」和Mead的「概化他者」為理論基礎,再引用Strauss, Stone和Goffman強調的情境式identity,配合Hirsch提出的職業、組織、制度三個研究分析層次,來深入分析華文報記者在不同層次的工作場域,以及面對不同的概化他者,所型塑出的自我認知類型。

  筆者以滾雪球的方式,訪問了18位在吉隆坡的華文報記者,每位做了一至二小時不等的深度訪談,本研究發現,在職業層面,面對華文報同行,記者有糊口飯吃和受同行認同與賞識的自我認知,而這種自我認知則受記者在報館地位和新聞組別的影響。當面對外文報同行時,有的記者的自我認知是高人一等和承認自己弱點,而有的記者則頗負面,有不屑與卑微的自我認知。

  在組織層面,本研究發現,記者面對報館這個概化他者時,出現三種情況:在主流與非主流報章的差異方面,非主流記者的自我認知受到報館地位的影響小,反而因為在報館享有較少的規範與約束而產生高自我認知;相反地,主流報章記者的自我認知,則因為報館地位和規範與約束的影響,產生正負兩種自我認知。此外,記者也會因報章風格而影響自我認知。在大報方面,記者的自我認知不會受報章銷售量滑落影響,反而因為報館的名聲、影響力、地位以及悠久的歷史而產生高自我認知。

  在制度層面,本研究將記者與報業環境作連結,發現記者都將造成自我認知卑微的原因歸咎於外在的結構因素,包括華文報業結構和政治環境,卻沒有發現本身語言能力、專業素質和態度的不足,也是出現卑微的自我認知的因素之一。當記者面對政治力量和法令時,產生三種類型的自我認知,包括敢於挑戰、自我設限和反感。

  本研究也發現,受到了馬來西亞各種族不平等的政、經、社、教情境的影響,華文報記者有既自大又自卑的自我認知。本研究係質性的「厚描」,將來如有人做量化的社會調查,當能使我們對馬來西亞的華文報與華文記者有更全、更深的認識。
Three main races, Malays, Chinese and Indians, compose of Malaysia’s population with the majority Malays enjoying special constitutional privileges while the Chinese suffering political, economic, cultural, linguistic and educational inequality. Such state is also reflected in the Malaysia press. While the Malay and English language newspapers wave greater social and political influences, those of the Chinese language press are limited within the ethnic Chinese. This thesis is aimed at finding out the self-identity of Chinese language newspaper reporters in this unequal multi-racial Malaysian context.

Conceptually, this research is constructed on Cooley’s theory of “looking glass self” and Mead’s “generalized others”. The “situational identity” proposed by Strauss, Stone and Goffman also forms a basis on which the thesis examines the identity of Chinese press reporters on institutional, organizational and individual levels as theorized by Hirsch.

By a snowballing method, this author interviewed 18 Chinese language newspaper reporters in Kuala Lumpur. Each in-depth interview took from one to two hours. On the occupational level, the generalized others are found to be other Chinese language newspaper reporters, whose self-identity ranges from making a living to wanting to be recognized or appreciated by colleagues. The latter is influenced by the status of newspapers and different kinds of newsgroups. When compared with Malay or English language newspaper reporters, the Chinese language press reporters perceive themselves possessing a higher social status while at the same time admitting self’s weakness. On the other hand, there are Chinese language newspaper reporters who show an identity of disdain and humbleness.

On the organizational level, three situations characterize the interviewed reporters. First, while non-mainstream newspaper reporters are less influenced by the status of newspaper, they have higher self-perception due to less restriction and higher autonomy in their work. Meanwhile, these reporters express both positive and negative self-perceptions influenced by the status and restriction of their newspaper. Second, reporters show different self-perception when the style of newspaper acts as one of the prominent factors. Thirdly, reporters at quality newspapers are less influenced by sales of the newspaper. Their higher perception self-identity is found to derive from the reputation, influence, status and history of the newspaper.

On institutional level, this study has found that the interviewed reporters attribute their humble self-identity to such structural factors as Chinese language newspaper’s internal structure problems and external political environment while circumventing their own insufficiency in language command and professionalism. When faced with Malaysia’s unequal political and legal realities, there are three kinds of self-identity: daring to challenge, practicing self-censorship or showing resentment.

This study adopts a qualitative method of “thick description” in its analysis. Future research shall reveal more by adopting a survey of statistically sampled reporters.
第一章 研究動機與背景 ..........................................................................................1
    第一節 研究動機 ..............................................................................................1
    第二節 研究背景 ..............................................................................................2
    第三節 研究架構和研究問題 ..........................................................................5

第二章 馬來西亞多元族群環境的政治及經濟概況 .......................................6
    第一節 1957年獨立前的種族情況 .................................................................6
    第二節 獨立前後(1946-1969)......................................................................7
    第三節 1969年的後續發展(1969-1981).....................................................9
    第四節 馬哈迪時代(1981-2003)................................................................10
    第五節 現任阿都拉時期(2003-2008)........................................................11

第三章 報業環境 ........................................................................................................14
    第一節 三種主要語文報的沿革 ......................................................................14
        壹、華文報的源起與概況 ..................................................................14 
        貳、各家華文報概況 ..........................................................................16
        叁、馬來文報概況 ..............................................................................19
        肆、英文報概況 ..................................................................................19
    第二節 報業集團和執政黨的關係 ..................................................................21
        壹、華文報業大亨張曉卿和世華媒體集團 ......................................21                     
        貳、馬華和南洋報業集團 ..................................................................21
        叁、巫統和馬來前鋒報集團、新海峽時報集團 ..............................22
        肆、小結 ..............................................................................................23
    第三節 影響報業的法令 ..................................................................................24
        壹、印刷與出版法令 ..........................................................................24
        貳、官方機密法令 ..............................................................................25
        叁、煽動法令 ......................................................................................25
        肆、馬新社法令 ..................................................................................25
    第四節 馬來西亞報業環境小結 ......................................................................26

第四章 文獻探討 .........................................................................................................28
    第一節 自我認同與社會互動 ...........................................................................28
        壹、有關「自我」的理論 ...................................................................28   
        貳、社會情境下的認同(identity)....................................................32
        叁、社會情境下的自我認同(self-identity).....................................35
    第二節 相關記者研究 ........................................................................................37
        壹、Hirsch的三個分析層次模型 .........................................................37
        貳、職業性分析層次 ............................................................................38






第五章 研究方法 .........................................................................................................42
    第一節 質性研究 ...............................................................................................42
    第二節 焦點訪談 ...............................................................................................44
    第三節 抽樣和訪談過程 ...................................................................................44
    第四節 受訪者個人資料 ...................................................................................45

第六章 研究分析 ..........................................................................................................47
    第一節 馬來西亞華文報業概況 ........................................................................47
    第二節 個人自我認知與概化他者的建構 ........................................................48
    第三節 記者與同行 ............................................................................................49
        壹、個人(自我)vs 華文報同行(他者).........................................50
        貳、華文報記者(自我)vs 外文報記者(他者)............................59
    第四節 記者與報館 ............................................................................................68
        壹、個人(自我) vs 報館(他者)....................................................68
    第五節 記者與報業環境 .....................................................................................82
        壹、華文報(自我)vs 外文報(他者).............................................82
        貳、報館(自我)vs 政府、法令(他者).........................................94

第七章 研究結論與建議 ...........................................................................................106
    第一節 研究結論 ...............................................................................................106
        壹、記者與同行 ...................................................................................106
        貳、記者與報館 ...................................................................................110
        叁、記者與報業環境 ...........................................................................114
        肆、多元種族環境下的華文報記者自我認知....................................117
    第二節 研究限制與建議 ...................................................................................118
        壹、研究限制 .......................................................................................118
        貳、未來研究方向 ...............................................................................119

參考文獻 ............................................................................................................................120        

附錄:訪談問題 ………………………………………………………………………..126

圖表目錄

表目錄

表2.1 2007年馬來西亞族群人口統計 .............................................................................6
表3.1 馬來西亞五大全國性華文報概況 ........................................................................16
表3.2 馬來西亞歷年各語文日報的每日平均銷售量 ....................................................20
表5.1 受訪者基本資料 ....................................................................................................46

圖目錄

圖7.1:合作與競爭-記者與華文報同行 .......................................................................108
圖7.2:讚賞與不屑-華文報記者與外文報記者 ...........................................................110
圖7.3:規範與自由-主流與非主流 ...............................................................................111
圖7.4:寧漏勿錯與寧錯勿漏-大報與小報 ...................................................................113
圖7.5:如日中天與江河日下-大報與大報 ...................................................................114
圖7.6:反感、自我設限與敢於挑戰-記者與政府法令 ...............................................116
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叁、網絡資料

〈興都權益大集會特別報導〉,《當今大馬》。(2007年11月30日)。取自http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/75529

丁國亮(2008年3月14日)。〈抗議檳州廢新經濟政策 約五百巫統馬來人示威〉,《獨立新聞在線》。上網日期:2008年3月14日,取自http://merdekareview.com/news.php?n=6252

金格(2008年3月4日)。〈本屆大選主軸:否決「巫統特權主義」〉,《當今大馬》。上網日期:2008年3月10日,取自http://malaysiakini.com/columns/79108

楊凱斌(2007年10月31日)。〈林巴再也木屋興都廟拆遷衝突 四黨團律師被控警局鬧事遭扣〉,《當今大馬》。上網日期:2008年3月10日,取自http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/74196

蕭方(2007年1月31日)。〈巫統亮出「馬來劍」 馬來西亞再陷種族主義泥沼〉,《鳳凰周刊》。上網日期:2008年3月10日,取自http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/73007589264195584/20070131/907816.shtml

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