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研究生:劉季綸
研究生(外文):Liu, Chi-Lun
論文名稱:系統功能演化之需求分析方法論
論文名稱(外文):Requirements Analysis Methodology for System Functional Evolution
指導教授:楊亨利楊亨利引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Heng Li
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:資訊管理研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:需求工程系統發展方法知識本體後設模型使用案例哲學詮釋學
外文關鍵詞:Requirements EngineeringSystems Development MethodologyOntologyMeta-modelUse Cases DiagramPhilosophical Hermeneutics
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在重視集體智慧、重視服務、且需要因應環境快速變遷的年代,傳統的系統開發方法論雖然有其不可磨滅的價值,但已經顯露出其不足之處。為了順應時代的潮流,方法論必須指引企業去聆聽大眾的心聲,以期確保系統提供優質的服務,方法論也必須指引資訊人員運用有異於以往的手法與步驟,與其他部門和大眾共同合作,來持續不斷地維護系統,使得系統得以注入新的生命力而不斷演進。
為了提出一套不斷吸納使用者的新需求來規劃系統演進的功能需求分析方法論,本研究以哲學詮釋學為基礎,並佐以軟體工程相關文獻,將持續吸納新需求來促進系統演進的抽象概念,化為具體可執行的步驟。本需求分析方法論是針對使用者提議的需求進行初步分析與確認,可分為兩個主要部分:需求形成流程、與衝突處理流程。需求形成流程是分析使用者所提出之功能性需求的主要方式,其中包含了提出新需求、分析新需求在商業活動與科技層次的影響、估計新需求的成本效益來決定是否實作、排序實作的優先權、並且了解新功能的釋出時間的期望。而衝突解決流程是為了解決各方人馬的歧見所造成的爭端,衝突解決的方式包含了自行協商、第三方中間人介入協調、以及高層決策小組的裁決。
為了讓企業外界的大眾提議新需求,本研究發展了一套以部落格為基礎的新需求提議工具,讓網友可在部落格上提出自己對新功能的想法。此外,為了協助企業判斷新需求是否會觸發衝突解決流程,本研究根據哲學詮釋學,將使用案例(Use cases)加以延伸修改,提出一套後設模型,並輔以知識本體,據此來提出一套規則,讓本工具能自動偵測新需求與系統既有設計之間是否有所抵觸,而規則亦可進一步應用在新需求間的衝突上。
為了初步瞭解本研究所提之方法論與工具的優缺點,本研究與中時電子報和民視購物網合作,來試用此方法論與工具。透過試用之後的訪談得知,本方法論與工具有其價值,而也獲得了不少寶貴的試用意見。最後,本研究根據試用的諸多意見,對方法論與工具的改善上,提出了具體的改良作法與方向。
Nowadays, companies have to respect collective knowledge and improve service quality for adapt their rapidly changing environment. Traditional systems development methodologies may be still valuable but have shortcomings. To accommodate customer-driven trend, new methodologies must guide enterprises to listen to customers for ensuring high-quality system services. New methodologies also have to guide developers to carry out cross-department and customer-centered collaboration in new ways for maintaining systems cyclically.
This research proposes a user requirements analysis methodology according on philosophical hermeneutics and software engineering literature. The proposed methodology includes requirements formation and conflict resolution. Requirements formation process involves new user requirement proposition, commercial and technical impact analysis, cost benefit estimation, coding prioritization, and new version release scheduling. Conflict resolution process involves negotiation, mediation, and arbitration.
Besides the proposed methodology, this research also develops a blog-based tool for collecting user requirements on Internet. This research extends and modifies use cases diagram and use philosophical hermeneutics as a foundation to propose a meta-model. This research also proposes a set of rules for conflict detection. Base on the proposed meta-model, ontologies, and the proposed rules, the blog-based tool can automatically detect conflicts between new requirements and existing design. These proposed rules also can apply to detect conflicts among new requirements.
An online newspaper company and an online shopping mall try to use this methodology and the blog-based tool. In the interviews, they confirm this methodology’s and tool’s values and give several suggestions for improving the methodology and the tool. Finally, this research discusses the improvements and future research directions according to these suggestions.
謝詞 I
摘要 I
Abstract IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
第一章 研究背景及目的 1
第一節 研究問題 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍 4
第四節 研究假設 5
第二章 文獻回顧與評述 7
第一節 溝通的相關理論 7
第二節 有機式組織與參與式管理 8
第三節 系統維護 9
第四節 系統維護方法論 10
第五節 方法論的假設與隱喻 14
第六節 哲學詮釋學 17
第七節 部落格 19
第八節 本體論 20
第九節 需求工程 22
第三章 研究方法 25
第四章 需求分析方法論 26
第一節 方法論介紹 26
一、本方法論精神:協助有機體的結構化神經訊號傳遞 26
二、本方法論概觀 28
三、需求形成流程 30
四、衝突解決流程 36
五、造成需求變更的回饋 41
六、詮釋學如何延伸至系統維護 43
七、本方法論如何符合SMmm指導方針 46
八、本方法論如何具備有機體特性 48
第二節 本方法論運作之虛擬劇情(Scenario) 51
一、需求形成流程的開始 52
二、觸發衝突解決流程 54
三、回到需求形成流程 55
四、事後的需求變更 56
第五章 部落格為基礎之工具 59
第一節 需求之後設模型與知識本體 59
第二節 工具之功能 62
第三節 衝突偵測規則之完整性討論 88
第六章 方法論之試用 91
第一節 試用過程 91
第二節 試用意見與討論 92
一、中時電子報對於方法論的意見 93
二、中時電子報對於工具的意見 95
三、民視購物網對於方法論的意見 98
四、民視購物網對於工具的意見 98
第七章 結論 104
參考文獻 106
中文部分:
1.余千智(主編),民91,電子商務總論,台北市:智勝。
2.潘建一,民88,劇本引導式需求工程發展方法,國立中央大學資訊工程研究所博士論文,未出版,中壢市。
3.薛念林,民88,目標導向之軟體需求工程發展方法,國立中央大學資訊工程研究所博士論文,未出版,中壢市。
4.唐日新,民92,社群導向系統的使用者需求擷取之研究,國立政治大學資訊管理研究所博士論文,未出版,台北市。
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