跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.180.223) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 23:48
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王嘉筠
研究生(外文):Chia-Yun Wang
論文名稱:高含砂水流流變與流動特性之試驗研究
論文名稱(外文):Laboratory Investigation of Reology and Transport Characteristics of Hyperconcentrated Flow
指導教授:盧昭堯盧昭堯引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:高含砂水流流變賓漢屈服應力輸砂
外文關鍵詞:hyperconcentrated flowreologyBingham yield stress
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:224
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣本島由於地形特殊,河川特徵多為源短流急,比降陡峻。中央山脈為台灣河川主要發源地,地質較鬆軟脆弱,台灣位於歐亞大陸板塊及菲律賓海板塊之間,以致於地震頻傳,加上人為對森林任意採伐、開墾,地表覆蓋因而遭到破壞,使水流蘊藏較高之沖刷潛勢。每逢颱風暴雨侵襲,大量沖蝕崩塌對河道屢生衝擊,而發生高含砂水流之災害亦時有所聞。台灣現有水利設施多以一般明渠流設計,高含砂水流與一般挾砂水流之性質有相當大之差異。因此,深入瞭解高含砂水之流動特性和運動機理,有其必要性。
本研究藉由東埔蚋溪初鄉橋崩塌地採集之土樣進行物理試驗,以瞭解其土壤特性,將採集之漿體調配濃度分別為24 %、30 %、40 %與50 % 之試樣,以Brookfield水平旋轉式流變計,進行流變試驗。另外,本研究以東埔蚋溪初鄉橋崩塌地土壤作為水槽試驗粒料選擇之依據,利用動床渠槽進行高含砂流動試驗,採0.5 %、0.75 % 及1 %三種坡度,及兩種流量,進行垂向流速與濃度剖面之水理與泥砂量測。
經試驗推導出東埔蚋溪初鄉橋上游崩塌地細顆粒漿體之流變關係式,並將其與神木村及大陸多處漿體試驗結果進行比較,發現本研究賓漢屈服應力與體積濃度之關係,與其他資料之關係頗為一致。在流動試驗方面,為提高泥砂濃度,試驗之福祿數較高,且接近臨界流況(Fr=0.8~1.25) 流場相對較不穩定,整體而言,其底床屬過渡 (transition) 之床形。本研究除分析濃度及流速剖面外,並考量沉速、卡門常數受含砂濃度影響,分析高含砂水流之輸砂關係,並與管流試驗進行比較。
Because of special topography, most rivers in Taiwan are short and steep and carry rapid flows. Majority of rivers in Taiwan originate from the Central Mountains, which has weak geological formation. Taiwan is located between Eurasia plate and Philippine sea plate, and the earthquake occurs frequently. In addition, men’s activities in the forest areas have disturbed the earth’s surface covers, and caused higher erosion potential.
The existing hydraulic facilities in Taiwan are usually designed based on the open channel flow theories. However, the characteristics of the hyperconcentrated flow is quite different from the regular sediment-laden flow. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly investigate the flow characteristics and the transport mechanism of the hyperconcentrated flow.
In this study, soil physics tests were performed to investigate the characteristics of the soil samples collected at the upstream landslide areas near the Chu-Hsiung Bridge of the Ton-Pu-Rey Creek. The rheology tests were performed using the Brookfield DV-Ⅲ rheometer for slurry samples with sediment concentration of 24%, 30%, 40% and 50%. In addition, sediment transport experiments for the hyperconcentrated flow were conducted using re-circulating flume with movable bed. The vertical velocity and concentration profiles were measured for two flow discharges and three slopes ranging from 0.5 to 1%.
The rheology relations for the samples near the Chu-Hsiung Bridge were derived and compared with those for the Shen-Mu Village and several sites in the mainland China. It was found that the Bingham yield stress and volume concentration relations were fairly consistent for these sites.
In regard to the sediment transport experiments for the hyperconcentrated flow, in order to increase the sediment concentration, the Froude numbers of the experiments were relatively high and close to the critical condition (Fr=0.8~1.25). The flow fields were, therefore, relatively unstable. In general, the bed form belongs to the transitional type for our experiments. The vertical concentration and velocity profiles were analyzed with consideration of the effects of the sediment concentration on the fall velocity and von Karman constant. The sediment transport relations for the hyperconcentrated flows were analyzed and compared with the results for the pipe flows.
目 錄
摘 要 I
Abstract III
目 錄 V
圖 目 錄 VII
表 目 錄 X
符 號 表 XI
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究動機 1
1-3 研究目的 2
1-4 本文組織 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 泥砂運動型態 4
2-2 流變特性 7
2-3 漿體流變參數 10
2-4 流速分佈與阻力損失 16
2-5 濃度分佈 18
2-6 水槽試驗 24
第三章 試驗設備及方法 26
3-1 流變試驗採樣 26
3-2 流變特性試驗 31
3-2-1 土壤特性 31
3-2-2 流變關係 37
3-3 流動特性試驗-水槽試驗 38
3-3-1 試驗規劃 38
3-3-2 設備及方法 41
第四章 結果與分析 55
4-1 流變試驗 55
4-2 水槽試驗 63
4-2-1 濃度剖面分析 69
4-2-2 流速剖面分析 71
4-2-3 輸砂關係 74
第五章 結論與建議 77
5-1 結論 77
5-2 建議 79
參考文獻 80
參考文獻
1.王兆印 (1984),「高含沙水流運動機理的試驗研究」,水利水電科學研究所,研究生畢業論文。
2.王志賢 (2007),「泥砂顆粒組成對黏性土石流體流變參數影響之研究」,國立成功大學水利及海洋工程研究所博士論文。
3.王尚毅 (1959),「挾砂明流中的流移質運動」,天津市水運學會報告。
4.「台21線等公路橋樑歷年颱洪土石流沖刷災害復健資料編篆 -第二冊」,交通部公路總局地區養路工程處(2006)。
5.沈長壽 (1990),「幾種毛管是黏度計泥漿流體流變試驗的比測」,泥漿體流體比測組,山地研究,第八卷,第三期,第137-146頁。
6.余昌益 (1997),「高含砂水流流變參數之實驗研究」,國立成功大學水利及海洋工程研究所碩士論文。
7.洪如江 (2002),「土力學試驗」,科技圖書股份有限公司。
8.經濟部水利署水利規劃試驗所 (2007),「高含砂水流整治規劃條件檢討及計算模式研發應用(2/3)」。
9.陝西省水利科學研究所 (1975),「高濃度水流挾沙能力的探討」,黃河泥沙研究報告選編,第二集,249~258頁。
10.陳宏宇(2001),「東埔蚋溪及出水溪之土石流的地質特性」,中華水土保持學報,32(4):289-296。
11.曾彥儒 (2007),「濁水溪下游輸砂特性之研究」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。
12.詹錢登 (2004),「土石流概論」,93年國中小教師水土保持專業成長與宣導成果發表會。
13.費祥俊、舒安平(2004),「泥石流運動機理與災害防治」,清華大學出版社。
14.萬兆惠、錢意穎(1979),「高含砂水流的室內試驗研究」,人民黃河。
15.劉浩吾、吳岱溟 (2002),「土壤力學」,新文京開發出版有限公司。
16.錢寧 (1983),「泥沙運動力學」,科學出版社。
17.錢寧 (1989),「高含砂水流運動」,清華大學出版社。
18.Athaullah , M., (1986) “Prediction of bed forms in erodible channels, ” Ph. D .Dissertation ,Colorado State Univ.
19.Bagnold, R. A ., (1962), “Auto-suspension of transported sediment;Turbidity Currents,” Proc. Royal Soc. London, Ser. A, Vol.265, No.1322, Jan, pp. 314~319.
20.Brooks, N. H., (1954), “Laboratory studies of the mechanics of streams flowing over a movable bed of fine sand,” Ph. D .Thesis, California Institute of Technology.
21.Chien, N., and Ma, H.(1958), “Properties of slurry flow,” J. Sediment Res.,3(3), Bijing , China.
22.Coleman, N. L., (1981), “Velocity profiles with suspension sediment,” J. Hydraul. Reaearch, 19(3), pp, 211~229.
23.Dai, J., et al.(1980), “An experimental study of slurry transport in pipes,” Proc., Int. Symposium on River Sedimentation,pp.195-204.
24.Einstein, H. A. (1950). “The bed load function for sediment transport in open channel flows,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Technical Bulletin No. 1026.
25.Einstein, H. A., and Chien, N. (1955). “Effects of heavy sediment concentration near the bed on velocity and sediment distribution,” MRD Sediment Ser. NO. 8, Univ. of California at Berkeley, Institute of Engineering Research, Berkeley, Calif.
26.Fei, X. J.(1981), “Bing yield stress of sediment water mixtures with hyperconcentration,” J. Sediment Res.,3,Bijing, China, pp.19-28.
27.Fowler, L.,(1953), “Notes on the turbulence function ,” Missouri River Division, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, November.
28.Gared, R. J. and Albertson M. L. (1959), “Characteristics of bed forms and regimes of flow in Alluvial channels,” Rep. CRE 59 RJG 9, Colorado State Univ., p.18.
29.Kang, Z., and Zhang, S. (1980), “A preliminary analysis of the characteristics of debris flow,” Porc., Int. Symposium on River Sedimentation, Bijing, China, pp.213-220.
30.Major, J. J., and Pierson, T. C. (1992), “Debris flow rheology:experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries,” Water Resources Research, Vol.28, No.3, pp.841-857.
31.O’Brien, J. S., and Julien, P. Y. (1988), “Laboratory analysis of mudflow properties,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.114, No.8, pp877-887.
32.Qian, Y., et al. (1980), “Basic characteristics of flow with hyperconcentrition of sediment,” Proc., Symposium on River Sedimentation, Bijing, China, vol.1, pp.175-184.
33.Richardson, J. F. and Zaki, W. N. (1954), “Sedimentation and fluidization, Part І ,Trans., Inst. Chem. Engrs.,Vol.32, No.1,pp.35~53.
34.Rouse, H. (1937), “Modern conceptions of the mechanics of turbulence,” Transaction of the ASCE, Vol. 102, 4630.
35.Simons, D. B. and Richardson E. V. (1966), “Resistance to flow in alluvial channels,” Professional Paper 422J, USGS, Washington, D.C.
36.Takahashi, T. (2006), “Debris flow:Mechanics, prediction and countermeasures,” Dratt.
37.Vanoni, V. A.,(1941), “Some experiments on the transportation of suspended loads,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 20(3), pp.608~621.
38.Vanoni, V. A.,(1946), “Transportation of suspended sedimeny by water,” Trans, ASCE, 111, pp. 67-133.
39.Vanoni, V. A., (1953), “Some effects of supended sediment on flow characteristics,” Proceedings , Fifth Hydraulic Conference Bulletin 34, State University of Iowa , Studids in Engineering, Iowa City, Iowa, pp. 137-158.
40.Wan, Z. (1982), “Bed material movement in hyperconcentrated flow,” Series Paper 31.Inst Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top