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研究生:陳駿豪
研究生(外文):Chun-Hao Chen
論文名稱:人造資材應用於抑止坡面土壤沖蝕及泥砂沉積之試驗研究
論文名稱(外文):Artificial Geotextiles Experiment Applied to Soil Erosion Control on Hillslope and Sediment Deposition in Channel
指導教授:陳樹群陳樹群引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:人造資材抗沖蝕效率邊坡保護囚砂率
外文關鍵詞:Geotextilesediment trapping efficiencyanti-erosion efficiencyslope protection
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本研究透過3種不同室內試驗配置,模擬人造資材分別應用於抑止裸露坡面土壤沖蝕、泥砂沉降過濾系統及河道囚砂,進而得到人造資材於下列3種試驗配置之適用性與成效評估:抑止坡面土壤沖蝕試驗中,運用室內人工模擬降雨以坡度30∘、35∘、40∘、45∘及降雨強度130mm/hr之條件下,鋪設木格框式抗沖蝕網(以下簡稱木格網)、木格網上方增鋪編織麻網及無鋪設人造資材之3種配置,於降雨延時第10min、20min、40min、60min分別量測土壤沖蝕量之變化,推估資材抑止土壤沖蝕之抗沖蝕效率,並與前人試驗結果相比較,得到人造資材應用於抑止裸露坡面土壤沖蝕之全面性成效評估;泥砂沉降過濾系統試驗為,固定流量、渠槽坡度,利用3種不同比表面積之化纖非編織孔隙資材,改變資材單位厚度及3種資材混和搭配,觀察其側面淤砂型態及囚砂率之變化,了解不同資材配置對整體囚砂率之影響,得出最佳囚砂率表現之資材搭配;將泥砂沉降過濾系統試驗所得之結果應用於河道囚砂,設計河道外掛之囚砂空間,配合孔隙資材之特性,改變上下游資材厚度時,整體淤砂型態和囚砂率之差異性。由上述試驗中,分別獲得下述之試驗結果。
抑止坡面土壤沖蝕試驗中,敷蓋率13.69%木格網於4種坡度、降雨強度130mm/hr、降雨延時60min之抗沖蝕效率皆超過50%,上方增鋪麻網後,抗沖蝕效率皆超過75%。與前人試驗結果比較,相同土壤條件、降雨強度、降雨延時,六種人造資材配置於坡度45°,抗沖蝕效率最高為木格網加麻網75.56%。在泥砂沉降過濾系統試驗中發現,下游段資材之比表面積為最大,且中間段及上游段資材之比表面積不相等時,囚砂率之表現皆較佳,其次為較高比表面積之資材單一配置。若將比表面積較小之資材放置下游段時,其囚砂率均較低。考慮泥砂沉降過濾系統清淤問題後,利用河川引流之概念,設計河道外掛囚砂空間並配合可透水之孔隙資材,發現下游段主河道砂粒沉積量明顯隨著下游段資材增厚而增加,且分佈情形與整體資材緩流效果有相關。囚砂率較高之試驗組,其砂粒沉積於河道上之囚砂量也較多,清淤方便及高囚砂率需加以取捨,端看施工時之需求。
The study focuses on the soil erosion control using the artificial geo-textiles on steep hillslopes with high rainfall intensity and reduce sediment concentration in channel. The soil erosion experiments, soil sampling from Nantou County, with rainfall intensity of 130mm/hr and 300cm×100cm test flume were implemented in the artificial rainfall equipment. The soil erosion volume was evaluated with seven types of artificial geo-textiles and reference on the 35° and 45° slope. The experiment result showed that the good artificial geo-textiles must close to the soil surface to reduce the runoff energy, gully erosion and sediment transport on the 35° slope. As the slope raised, the velocity of flow were increased, the geo-textiles which lack of weight and separate from soil surface to hang in the air and cause gully erosion during the rainfall experiments. The best function for the runoff erosion is the artificial geo-textiles have lots of joints to touch the soil surface. However, the natural or chemical-fiber nets can be used to reduce the rainfall drop energy to hit the soil surface.
Improper sand washing by grit industry and landslide avalanche to channel often cause increasing sediment concentration.In order to reduce sediment concentration in channel, the study of indoor experiment uses three kinds of geotextile which contains different specific surface and arcrylic gate to piece up sediment deposition and filtration system. Change the thickness, location of geotextile to obtain the relationship between geotextile and sediment trapping efficiency.
Secondly, the experiment of sediment trapping in channel changes angles of geotextile and channel and adds sediment trapping space beside channel in order to deposit sediment in sediment trapping space and make the dredging activities easier and faster
摘要 I
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究流程 2
第二章 前人研究 4
2.1 人造資材簡介 4
2.2 人造孔隙資材應用於土壤排水 7
2.3 土壤沖蝕機制 10
2.4 孔隙型防砂壩 12
第三章 抑止裸露坡面土壤沖蝕試驗 15
3.1 試驗目的 15
3.2 試驗材料與方法 16
3.2.1 試驗設備 17
3.2.2 試驗條件 19
3.2.3 試驗流程 20
3.3 結果與討論 23
3.3.1 試驗現象 23
3.3.2 試驗數據分析及討論 25
3.4 人造被覆資材綜合比較 30
3.5 小結 33
第四章 人造資材應用於泥砂沉降試驗 34
4.1 試驗目的 34
4.2 試驗材料與方法 35
4.2.1 試驗設備 36
4.2.2 供砂系統 37
4.2.3 人造孔隙資材 38
4.2.4 試驗條件 39
4.2.5 試驗流程 43
4.3 試驗現象探討 45
4.4 整體囚砂率分析及討論 48
4.4.1 1單位厚度資材之整體囚砂率 49
4.4.2 2單位厚度資材之整體囚砂率 49
4.4.2.1 固定M資材於上游段,中間段任意資材 51
4.4.2.2 固定L資材於上游段,中間段任意資材 52
4.4.2.3 固定S資材於上游段,中間段任意資材 53
4.4.2.4 固定M資材於中間段,上游段任意資材 54
4.4.2.5 固定L資材於中間段,上游段任意資材 54
4.4.2.6 固定S資材於中間段,上游段任意資材 55
4.4.3 3單位厚度資材之整體囚砂率 56
4.4.3.1 固定M資材於上游段,中間段下游段任意資材 59
4.4.3.2 固定L資材於上游段,中間段下游段任意資材 60
4.4.3.3 固定S資材於上游段,中間段下游段任意資材 61
4.4.3.4 固定M資材於中間段,上游段下游段任意資材 62
4.4.3.5 固定L資材於中間段,上游段下游段任意資材 63
4.4.3.6 固定S資材於中間段,上游段下游段任意資材 64
4.4.3.7 固定M資材於下游段,上游段中間段任意資材 66
4.4.3.8 固定L資材於下游段,上游段中間段任意資材 66
4.4.3.9 固定S資材於下游段,上游段中間段任意資材 67
4.4.4 單一資材配置於1、2、3單位厚度之囚砂率 67
4.4.5 所有資材配置於1、2、3單位厚度之平均囚砂率 68
4.4.6 以囚砂率區分3單位厚度時不同之資材配置 69
4.5 小結 72
第五章 人造孔隙資材應用於河道囚砂試驗 73
5.1 試驗構想 73
5.2 試驗材料與方法 73
5.2.1 人造孔隙資材 75
5.2.2 試驗用砂 75
5.2.3 試驗條件 76
5.2.4 試驗流程 77
5.3 結果與討論 79
5.3.1 試驗影像探討 79
5.3.2 數據分析及討論 80
5.3.2.1 資材厚度比對囚砂率之影響 81
5.3.2.2 比較囚砂空間A、B及C、D之個別囚砂率 82
5.3.2.3 砂粒沉積位置與囚砂率之探討 83
5.4 小結 86
第六章 結論 87
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