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研究生:林羿丞
研究生(外文):I-Cheng Lin
論文名稱:草溝之水理實驗及設計
論文名稱(外文):Hydraulic Experiments and Design in a Vegetated Channel
指導教授:謝平城謝平城引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ping-Cheng Hsien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:渠槽試驗植生渠道曼寧粗糙係數
外文關鍵詞:flume testgrassed channel
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基於保護整體生態,排水設施應減少混凝土使用的比例,非主要排水設施更可以草溝取代,進而降低整體排水系統混凝土的使用量。為尋求合適之草溝鋪設排水設計,本研究以兩種土壤、三種草種及三種坡度進行渠槽實驗,擬針對草溝之水理設計進行分析、探討。經實驗結果推得理論解合理,由相對高度與流速之關係圖可看出:在土壤為黃壤及土壤為紅壤的狀況下,減緩流速效果皆以假儉草為最佳、百慕達草次之,最差者為類地毯草。
本研究經實驗、計算及比較後,發現不論草層為何種植生,現常用於估算流速之曼寧公式所求得之流速皆偏大,屬於高估的情況,顯示其應用於斷面設計時容易與真實情況有較大之差異。而許煜聖(2003)之理論解較接近實驗值,因此本研究進而以其理論解繪出三種草種於不同土壤與不同坡度時之相對高度與平均流速關係圖,並提供設計例和曼寧公式進行比較。
In order to protect the ecological system, the proportion of using concrete to construct drainage facilities should be reduced, and some non-major drainage facilities could be replaced with grassed channels. This experiment was executed with two kinds of soil, three kinds of grass and three kinds of channel''s slope to analyze the designs of grassed channel and to seek the best one. The results of this study fit in with the analytical solution of Shiu''s (2003). Relati/onships between the relative height and the mean velocity explain that the effect to slow the velocity down of Centipede grass is the best, that of Bermuda grass is the second, and that of Carpet grass (Broad leaf) is the worst whatever the bottom is yellow loam or red loam.
After the experiment, calculation and comparison, the velocity estimated by Manning''s formula is always larger than that obtained by other methods whatever the slope of channel or the vegetation is. It indicates that the design of drainage facilities by Manning''s formula is often different from the reality. The results of this experiment approach to the analytical solution of Shiu''s (2003). According to the solution of Shiu''s (2003), we plot the relationship between the relative height and the mean velocity for three kinds of grass under different soil and slope, and we provide the designing case to compare with the application of Manning''s formula.
摘 要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
第一章 前 言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究動機 1
1.3研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 草溝相關設計手冊 4
2.2 渠道實驗相關研究 7
2.3 透水底床相關研究 14
2.4 植生對水流之影響因子相關研究 15
第三章 相關理論介紹與室內實驗設計 17
3.1 相關理論介紹 17
3.1.1 許煜聖(2003)之理論解 17
3.1.2 曼寧公式 24
3.2 實驗材料 24
3.2.1 實驗場地介紹 24
3.2.2 實驗儀器介紹 26
3.2.3 植物材料 30
3.3 實驗步驟與流程 32
3.3.1 超音波流速儀實驗步驟 32
3.3.3 電磁式流速儀實驗步驟 33
3.3.4 實驗流程 33
3.4 實驗方法 35
3.4.1 超音波流速儀量測平均流速 35
3.4.2 電磁式流速儀量測平均流速 36
3.4.3 水桶法估算平均流速 37
3.4.4 草層之孔隙率(n2)及比滲透係數(kp2) 38
3.4.5 土層之飽和水力傳導度(k)及比滲透係數(kp3) 39
第四章 結果與討論 42
4.1 底床土壤為黃壤之結果分析 42
4.1.1 草層為假儉草之結果分析 51
4.1.2 草層為百慕達草之結果分析 57
4.1.3 草層為類地毯草之結果分析 62
4.2 底床土壤為紅壤之結果分析 67
4.2.1 草層為假儉草之結果分析 77
4.2.2 草層為百慕達草之結果分析 82
4.2.3 草層為類地毯草之結果分析 87
4.3 形狀因子修正 91
4.4 草種之草高與孔隙率關係 92
4.5 水理設計之應用例 94
第五章 結論與建議 106
5.1 結論 106
5.2 建議 106
參考文獻 108
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