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研究生:王淑亭
研究生(外文):Shu-Ting Wang
論文名稱:厭氧產氫顆粒污泥形成過程中微生物結構變化
論文名稱(外文):Microbial Community Structure During the Formation of Anaerobic Hydrogen Granular Sludge
指導教授:洪俊雄洪俊雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Hsiung Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:厭氧生物醱酵產氫顆粒污泥EPS
外文關鍵詞:Biohydrogengranule sludgeEPS
相關次數:
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在各式厭氧醱酵產氫程序中,連續進流反應槽(CSTR)已被證實具有較佳之產氫效能,但在縮短其水力停留時間低於4 hr時,污泥往往有被洗出(wash-out)的現象,導致系統之產氫效能降低。有研究指出,於CSTR系統中添加固定化細胞可誘發自發性顆粒污泥之生成,不僅有助於增加反應槽內的biomass量及有機負荷量,亦使產氫系統能於低水力停留時間下穩定操作並提升產氫效能達3.35 mole H2/mole sucrose。本實驗室早期針對逢甲大學「生物氫能研究團隊」所架設之生物醱酵產氫槽進行菌相分析,結果皆顯示當反應槽操作於低水力停留時間時,槽內會有自發性顆粒污泥之生成,並證實其生成可能與會產生胞外聚合物(EPS)之Streptococcus sp.菌群存在有關,因此,本實驗將研究在自發性顆粒污泥生成過程中,其EPS產生量與顆粒結構及產氫族群與EPS生成菌群之相互關係,以推導出顆粒污泥形成的主要因素。
結果指出,操作於HRT 2 hr時,系統中有少量之EPS產生並有少量顆粒之生成,顆粒平均粒徑為0.66 mm,此時Streptococcus sp.(LGC354)菌屬有較高之比例,系統之產氫速率及氫氣產率為1.49 L/h/L及2.24 mole H2/mole sucrose;當系統操作於HRT 1 hr時,有較多之EPS被產生並有大量顆粒生成,以致有最高之MLSS濃度(52700 mg/L),此時Clostridium sp.(Chis150)菌屬有較高之比例存在,其顆粒結構較緊實且其平均粒徑為1.48 mm,產氫速率及氫氣產率也提升至3.80 L/h/L及2.97 mole H2/mole sucrose;系統操作於HRT 0.5 hr時,Clostridium sp.(Chis150)菌屬亦有較Streptococcus sp.(LGC354)高之比例,而顆粒之結構較HRT 1 hr時鬆散且平均粒徑為2.26 mm,此時系統有較佳之產氫速率及氫氣產率為6.95 L/h/L及5.03 mole H2/mole sucrose,而顆粒中主要之Clostridium sp.以C. pasteurianum為主。於顆粒相及懸浮相之總菌群結果中發現,Streptococcus lutetiensis只於顆粒相結果中被發現。
綜合以上的結果可得知,隨水力停留時間的縮短,系統中之顆粒有變大之趨勢,產氫速率及氫氣產率有明顯上升的現象,而EPS之產生有助於系統中顆粒之生成,且顆粒中優勢產氫菌以C. pasteurianum為主;此外,亦發現顆粒中附著之EPS含量的多寡可能會影響顆粒結構的緊實或鬆散,進而影響系統之產氫效能。
Among all the anaerobic fermentation hydrogen producing systems, anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was proved to have high producing efficiency. However, when it was operated under 4 hour hydraulic retention time (HRT), the system tended to undergo serious washing out of biomass as well as decreasing of the hydrogen production efficiency. This disadvantage can be solved by adding immobilized cell to promote the formation of granular sludge. It had been proven that this addition not only raises the biomass concentration and the organic loading rate but also enhances the hydrogen production yield up to 3.35 mole H2/mole sucrose at low HRT operation. Previous studies conducted by our lab have found that a EPS producing bacteria strain Streptococcus sp. could significantly participate in the formation of self-form granular. Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore the relationship between the production of EPS and granular structure as well as the changing of microorganism composition during the granular formation.
Results from this study indicated that when the system was operated under 2 hr HRT, low concentration of EPS was produced and average size of the anaerobic granules was 0.66 mm. Hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield were 1.49 L/h/L and 2.24 mole H2/mole sucrose, respectively. The results also revealed that there was a high proportion of Streptococcus sp. (LGC354) existed in the system. When the system was operated at 1 hr HRT, significant production of EPS was observed and average particle size of the anaerobic granules was 1.48 mm in accompany with the a highest observed MLSS concentration (52,700 mg/L) and existence of many Clostridium sp. cell counts. Hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield were enhanced to 3.80 L/h/L and 2.97 mole H2/mole sucrose, respectively. When the system was operated under HRT=0.5 hr, we fined that the proportion of Clostridium sp. were higher than that of Streptococcus sp. and the granule structure at HRT 0.5 hr was not denser than that of HRT 1 hr. At this operation, the best hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield were 6.95 L/h/L and 5.03 mole H2/mole sucrose were found and the C. pasteurianum were the main Clostridium species in the granule sludge which average particle size was 2.26 mm. Also, from the microorganism community structure between the granule-phase and suspension-phase, the bacteria of Streptococcus lutetiensis only can be fined in the granule-phase.
Based on the results collected in this study, it appeared that the size of the granular, hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen production yield all increased with a shortening of hydraulic retention time. We also fined that the production of EPS were helping bacteria to aggregate and promoting the formation of granular sludge. C. pasteurianum was the still the predominated hydrogen producing bacteria. Furthermore, the amount of EPS adhered at granule sludge were also influenced the structure of granule sludge, and then affected the hydrogen production efficiency.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 能源發展 4
一、再生能源 4
二、生質能 4
第二節 氫氣 6
一、氫氣介紹 6
二、氫氣製備方法 7
(一)、熱化學法 8
(二)、電化學法 9
(三)、生物法 9
第三節 生物產氫 9
一、產氫微生物 10
二、原理與機制 12
(一)、直接光解(Direct biophotolysis) 12
(二)、間接光解(Indirect biophotolysis) 13
(三)、光醱酵(Photo-fermentation) 14
(四)、暗醱酵(Dark-fermentation) 16
第四節 厭氧醱酵產氫 19
一、厭氧醱酵產氫微生物 19
(一)、Clostridium菌屬之特性及產氫能力 20
(二)、Klebsiella菌屬之特性及產氫能力 22
二、厭氧生物產氫之機制 24
(一)、厭氧甲烷代謝途徑 25
(二)、Clostridium屬之碳水化合物代謝途徑 25
(三)、Clostridium屬之產氫酵素 28
第五節 顆粒污泥 29
一、EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) 29
(一)、EPS組成 29
(二)、EPS的特性 30
(三)、影響生物顆粒中EPS產生的因素 31
(四)、EPS對生物顆粒的影響 31
二、顆粒化污泥 32
(一)、顆粒污泥形成機制 32
(二)、顆粒污泥之結構 33
(三)、顆粒污泥對產氫的影響 35
第六節 厭氧醱酵顆粒產氫系統 35
一、CSABR反應器(continuously stirred anaerobic bioreactor) 36
二、UASB反應器(upflow anaerobic sludge bed;UASB) 36
三、CIGSB反應器(carrier-induced granular sludge blanket;CIGSB) 37
四、固定化細胞 37
第七節 分子生物技術於環境工程上之應用 38
一、16S rDNA及functional gene 39
二、聚合酶連鎖反應 40
三、變性梯度明膠電泳 40
四、螢光原位雜合法 43
第八節 分子生物技術於生物產氫之應用 45
一、菌相分析 45
二、定量分析 46
三、產氫酵素之研究 46
第九節 文獻閱讀心得及方向擬定 48
第三章 材料與方法 49
第一節 實驗架構 49
第二節 實驗設備 50
第三節 實驗方法 51
一、污泥來源 51
二、連續攪拌式厭氧生物醱酵產氫反應槽(CSABR) 51
第四節 分析方法 54
一、反應槽中之菌相分析 54
(一)、污泥前處理 54
(二)、DNA萃取 54
(三)、PCR 55
(四)、DGGE 56
(五)、Acrylamide/Bis膠體之DNA純化 57
(六)、親緣分析 57
二、反應槽中之族群比例分析-FISH 58
(一)、固定(Fixation) 60
(二)、雜交(Hybridization) 60
(三)、清洗(Washing) 60
(四)、DAPI染色 61
(五)、顯像(Vision) 61
三、顆粒污泥之相關分析 61
(一)、胞外多醣體之萃取 61
(二)、總糖測定:酚-硫酸法 62
(三)、位相差顯微鏡觀察 62
(四)、顆粒大小 62
(五)、MLSS測定 62
第四章 結果與討論 63
第一節 污泥顆粒化過程之分析 63
一、顆粒污泥形成過程之位相差顯微鏡觀察 63
二、顆粒大小之測定 66
三、污泥顆粒化過程之EPS分析 68
四、顆粒生成對系統產氫之影響 74
第二節 顆粒污泥於不同HRT下菌相變化與產氫效能之分析 77
一、總菌群結構分析 77
二、Clostridium菌群之菌相分析 82
第三節 系統中顆粒相與懸浮相之菌相變化比較 85
一、總菌群結構分析 85
二、Clostridium菌群之菌相分析 86
第四節 綜合討論 88
第五章 結論與建議 90
第一節 結論 90
第二節 建議 92
參考文獻 93
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