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研究生:林上傑
研究生(外文):Shang-Jie Lin
論文名稱:奈米乳化液應用於新式永續性工程用液之研究
論文名稱(外文):The application of nanoemulsion as a novel sustainable industrial fluid
指導教授:張書奇張書奇引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:金屬切削液奈米乳化液礦物油植物油
外文關鍵詞:Metalworking fluidsNanoemulsionMineral oilVegetable oil
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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工業用液之環境績效改善,可概分為工業用液的設計,加工中的製程管理,與排放後廢水處理。如果以產品生命週期而言,愈上游之設計的改善愈有利於工業用液之永續管理績效。工業用液在多種工業製程中均受到微生物分解的影響,包括石油勘探,冷卻水系統,過濾系統,海水淡化和金屬加工過程。因此,相當多的資源和時間耗費於防止微生物生長,微生物繁殖也同時衝擊工業用液的完整性和功能性。工業用液中,金屬切削液擁有適合微生物大量生長的油水比率,極適合微生物生長。通常於金屬製程中,為了抑制微生物生長,必須加入殺菌劑,導致微生物產生抗藥性,使勞工暴露於高劑量的殺菌劑與格蘭氏陰性菌死亡後所釋放的內毒素。進而造成職場勞工的安全衛生顧慮,並且衝擊下游之廢水生物處理效率。
本研究工作的假說是以處於亞穩定狀態的奈米乳化顆粒所表現出高生物穩定性作為新式工業用液之構想為基礎,因此於製程中不需加入大量的殺菌劑。此外,在特定濃度範圍內,乳化顆粒將呈現高度乳化穩定性而不易分層;但經過稀釋並接觸到固體顆粒後,乳化之油顆粒將聚集增大。故於排放至廢水處理設施後,因濃度稀釋且有懸浮固體之雙重條件,將很容易被微生物所降解。本研究研發之兩種奈米乳化液,其原料是以廉價的工業用礦物油與市售大豆油,作為奈米乳化液中的油相。經乳化後,此兩種乳化液的油顆粒大小,直徑可達約10 nm,二者均為目前所知之全世界最小粒徑之礦物油與植物油在水中之乳化液。本研究將此兩種乳化液與市面上販售的兩種殺菌劑,進行細菌生長抑制效果之比較。本研究結果顯示一製程內生物穩定但製程後容易生物分解之新式永續性工程用液之構想是可行的。
The need for effective industrial water management requires better strategies for industrial fluid formulation, in-process fluid management, and end-of-life fluid management. The earlier the changes in its life cycle, the greater the benefit will be. Industrial fluids are subject to biodeterioration in a variety of industrial operations, including oil exploration, cooling water systems, filtration systems, desalination, and metalworking processes. Thus, resources and time have been expended to prevent microbial growth and consequential impacts on fluid integrity and functionality. Among these various industrial fluids, water-based metalworking fluid has been one of the most vulnerable fluids since it has suitable oil-to-water ratios for microbial proliferation. Therefore, biocide addition is inevitable and dosage elevation is required due to microbial resistance. Consequently, workers are exposed to high level of biocides and endotoxins released from killed Gram-negative bacteria.

The working hypothesis of this study is that metastability of nanoemulsion will exhibit high emulsion stability and high biostability due to membrane disruption without adding any biocides. Nevertheless, nanoemulsion will be easily biodegraded when in wastewater treatment processes due to coalesce in diluted concentration range.

In this study, with industrial-grade components, a novel and highly stable nanoemulsion with average mineral oil droplet diameters as small as 10 nanometers has been prepared through phase inversion temperature method and its biocidal effects were tested on Pseudomonas aeruginoasa (Gram negative) and Mycobacterium immunogenum (Gram positive). Side by side, two commercially available biocides, Kathon and Preventol, were also tested for their biocidal effects in phosphate buffer saline with two commercially available metalworking fluids. In pure cultures, this nanoemulsion successfully achieved a killing efficacy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa higher than 5 log decades and that on Mycobacterium immunogenum higher than 6 log decades within 15 minutes. In an equal-volume mixed culture, this nanoemulsion showed a killing efficacy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium immunogenum higher than 7 log decades within 15 minutes and 5 log decades within 30 minutes, respectively. These results suggest that such mineral oil nanoemulsion has high biocidal effects on bacteria comparable to commercially available biocides. A soybean oil nanoemulsion with droplet diameters less than 15 nanometers has also been prepared but showed insignificant biocidal effects on both bacteria. This result implied that, apart from the size of oil droplets, the molecular structures of oils and surfactant composition may have also contributed to their biocidal effects.
摘 要 i
Abstract iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xiii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 7
第二章 文獻回顧 9
2-1奈米科技 9
2-1-1 何謂奈米 10
2-1-2 奈米技術領域 11
2-2 何謂金屬切削液 12
2-2-1 金屬切削液之油相組成 15
2-2-1-1 礦物油 15
2-2-1-2 植物油 16
2-2-1-3 合成油 17
2-2-2 微生物之細胞膜組成 18
2-3 界面活性劑簡介 20
2-3-1 界面活性劑的基本功能與作用 21
2-3-2 界面活性劑的分子結構 24
2-3-3界面活性劑種類 25
2-4 界面活性劑的微胞現象 31
2-5乳化液的介紹 34
2-5-1乳化的定義 34
2-5-2 何謂乳化液 36
2-5-3 乳化液之亞穩定狀態 37
2-5-4 殺菌劑介紹與奈米乳化液之殺菌機制 38
2-5-4-1 殺菌劑之介紹 38
2-5-4-1-1 Kathon 886 MW 39
2-5-4-1-2 Preventol CMK-NA 40
2-5-4-2 奈米乳化液之殺菌機制 42
2-6 親水基和親油基的平衡值 46
2-7 如何選擇乳化劑 47
2-7-1 HLB法 49
2-7-2 相轉變溫度法(PIT) 53
2-8 儀器原理與介紹 57
2-8-1環境掃描式電子顯微鏡 57
2-8-2 粒徑量測儀 Nano-ZS 60
第三章 實驗方法 63
3-1實驗藥品 63
3-2 實驗儀器 64
3-3實驗菌株的準備 64
3-3-1 菌株培養液的製備 65
3-4 實驗架構 66
3-4-1實驗前的預準備 67
3-4-2 奈米乳化液的製備 69
3-4-3 市售殺菌劑與乳化液的稀釋 71
3-5 微生物培養基的製作 71
3-6 奈米乳化液粒徑的測量 72
3-7 微生物生長抑制實驗 74
3-7-1 純菌株 74
3-7-1-1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 74
3-7-1-2 Mycobacterium immunogenum 75
3-7-2 混合菌株 75
3-7-2-1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 75
3-7-2-2 Mycobacterium immunogenum 76
第四章 結果與討論 77
4-1 奈米乳化液 77
4-1-1 自製奈米乳化液之界面活性劑的混合比例 77
4-1-2 自製奈米乳化液之油、水、界面活性劑比例 77
4-1-3 奈米乳化液之製備過程 78
4-1-4 影響製備奈米乳化液之因素 80
4-1-5 奈米乳化液-礦物油配方 81
4-1-6 奈米乳化液-植物油配方 82
4-2 奈米乳化液粒徑量測結果 84
4-2-1短期粒徑量測結果 84
4-2-2 環境掃描式電子顯微鏡 88
4-2-2-1 奈米乳化液的前處理 89
4-2-2-2 礦物油與植物油奈米乳化液的量測 89
4-2-3 礦物油與植物油奈米乳化液的特色與比較 91
4-3 乳化液對細菌的抑制效果 92
4-3-1 純菌株P. aeruginosa的抑制效果 93
4-3-2 純菌株M. immunogenum的抑制效果 98
4-3-3 混合菌株中P. aeruginosa的抑制效果 101
4-3-4 混合菌株中M. immunogenum的抑制效果 104
第五章 結論與建議 107
5-1 結論 107
5-2 建議 112
參考文獻 114
附錄 123
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中文書籍
1.李珍濤 (1995) 多元醇界面活性劑之過去與未來展望 化工資訊。
2.陳崇賢 (1996) 乳液概論 界面科學會誌。
3.歐靜枝編譯 (1992) 乳化溶化技術實務 復漢出版社印行。
4.王鳳英編譯 (1993) 界面活性劑的原理與應用 高立圖書有限公司。
5.趙承琛編著 (1990) 界面活性劑化學 復文書局。
6.趙承琛編著 (1991) 界面科學基礎 復文書局。
7.張有義、郭蘭生編譯,Duncan J Shaw 編著,(1997),膠體及界面化學入門,高立出版社,台北。
8.呂宗昕著(2003) 圖解奈米科技與光觸媒 商周出版社。
9.工研院化工所界面活性劑產業專題 (2003)。
10.黃世吉 (1997) 界面活性劑乳化精油之原理及應用 大葉大學食品工程研究所碩士論文。
11.賴碧玉 (2002) 乳液安定性控制因素 元智大學化學工程研究所碩士論文。
12.陳伸賢 (2007),地層下陷之防治與復育,台灣土壤及地下水 環境保護協會。
13.陳鴻泉,呂文賢,黃世傑,張凱茹 (2007),地下水污染生物整治法-慢性釋放營養劑在台灣之應用經驗,ERM Taiwan 永灃環境管理顧問股份有限公司。
網頁資料
1.http://www.feli.com.tw/nano/whatisnano.htm#tec2 何謂奈米? 。
2.http://nano.nsc.gov.tw/main/1/1_data.html 科技年鑑奈米網。
3.http://www.mmsonline.com.cn 2007年12月11日 工業潤滑技術。
4.http://61.218.58.238/pipxoops/modules/pip/templates/lbg2006/chapter/1-1.php石油情報網。
5.http://www.lancome.com.tw/_zh/_tw/ 蘭寇網頁內容。
6.http://www.tasgep.org.tw台灣土壤及地下水環境保護協會網站
7.http://www.sdnano.com/nano/metirealpaper.htm 奈米材料科技 。
8.http://elearning.stut.edu.tw/caster/3/no3/3-2.htm 掃描式電子顯微鏡。
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