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研究生:陳旻宛
研究生(外文):Min-Wan Chen
論文名稱:從鹽度耐受性探討台灣產淡水蟹的擴散能力
論文名稱(外文):Dispersal ability of Taiwanese freshwater crabs revealed by salinity tolerance
指導教授:施習德施習德引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生命科學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:淡水蟹鹽度死亡率滲透調節行為擴散
外文關鍵詞:freshwater crabsalinitymortalityosmoregulationbehaviordispersal
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本實驗想要了解台灣的淡水蟹是否能存活於海水中, 及是否能藉由海水進行族群擴散, 並希望有助於解釋現今台灣淡水蟹的分布。本實驗以八種台灣產淡水蟹, Candidiopotamon rathbunae、Geothelphusa eurysoma、G. ferruginea、G. miyazakii、G. monticola、G. pingtung、Nanhaipotamon formosanum與Somanniathelphusa taiwanensis, 來討論在面臨環境鹽度變化時的淡水蟹的鹽度耐受性。將淡水蟹分成實驗組 (從淡水轉移到海水) 與控制組 (從淡水轉移到淡水), 探討轉移後的 96 小時 (4 天) 內牠們的死亡率、血淋巴液滲透壓的變化和行為改變。結果顯示: (1) 所有物種在進行轉移後仍發現有存活的個體, 且所有物種的累計死亡率在不同環境間、屬間、種間或體型間皆發現有顯著差異; 顯示此八種淡水蟹皆可存活於淡水或海水環境中, 但淡水蟹在淡水或海水環境中的死亡率會隨著, 物種或體型之間而有不同。(2) 所有物種在轉移至海水環境後 24 小時, 其血淋巴液滲透壓皆顯著高於原點 (0 小時) 的滲透壓; 顯示牠們可能藉由調節血淋巴滲透壓以維持體內的恆定。(3) 所有物種的動作表現比例在轉移後皆逐漸減少, 但除了螯的動作之外, 其餘行為的表現比例並沒有顯著地降低; 顯示牠們可能藉由降低行為的表現以減少能量消耗來提高存活機率, 又可能僅是死亡前個體因能量不足而導致的結果。本研究證實此八種淡水蟹能存活在海水環境中至少 4 天, 並且會藉由血淋巴滲透壓或行為的改變來因應環境鹽度變化時的影響。並且推論這些能力與反應策略將可以幫助牠們在面臨海洋阻隔時, 仍可越過海洋而擴散到其他島嶼或大陸。
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
附錄 VIII
一、前言 1
(一) 淡水蟹概述 1
1、淡水蟹的生活史簡述 1
2、淡水蟹的棲息環境 1
3、淡水蟹的分布概述 1
4、台灣與週遭地區淡水蟹的親緣關係 2
(二) 蝦蟹類鹽度調節與耐受性 2
1、淡水蟹 3
2、淡水螯蝦 4
3、洄游性淡水蝦 4
4、其他蟹類 5
5、鹽度耐受性與體型及生長發育的關係 6
(三) 蝦蟹類對鹽度變化的行為反應 6
(四) 鹽度對甲殼類分布與生理的影響概述 7
(五) 淡水蝦蟹的擴散 8
二、實驗目的 9
三、材料與方法 10
(一) 實驗物種與採集地點 10
1、實驗物種 10
2、採集地點 11
(二) 馴養環境 12
(三) 環境水樣離子測量 13
(四) 實驗設計 13
2、死亡率 15
3、血淋巴液的抽取與滲透壓測量 15
4、行為觀察 16
(五) 資料分析 17
四、結果 19
(一) 野外採集資料 19
1、採集個體體型分布 19
2、採集個體性別比例 19
3、棲地水樣離子測量結果 19
(三) 屬間與種間的死亡率之比較 20
1、屬間累計死亡率與非累計死亡率 20
2、種間累計死亡率比較 21
(四) 各物種不同體型間的累計死亡率與非累計死亡率 23
1、海水和淡水中的累計死亡率比較 23
2、各物種不同體型間的非累計死亡率 25
(五) 各物種不同體型間的半數死亡時間 26
1、不同體型部分 26
2、成蟹與稚蟹部分 26
(六) 鹽度耐受性綜合評估 26
1、甲寬 ≧ 10 mm 與 < 10 mm 以下的個體 27
2、成蟹與稚蟹 27
3、四天後海水的飼養觀察 28
(七) 滲透壓變化測量 28
(八) 行為反應觀察 29
五、討論 32
(一) 鹽度耐受力之評估 32
(二) 鹽度變化時生理與行為的反應 37
(三) 淡水甲殼類擴散能力探討 41
1、從血淋巴液與死亡率綜合評估此八種淡水蟹的耐受能力 41
2、淡水蝦蟹的海洋隔離現象 42
3、台灣淡水蟹鹽度耐受性與擴散能力探討 43
4、淡水蟹的擴散可能探討 44
六、結論 46
七、未來展望 47
八、參考文獻 48
表 63
圖 79
附錄 99
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