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研究生:高啟倫
研究生(外文):Chi-Lun Kao
論文名稱:臺中市垃圾掩埋場復育公園內小型哺乳動物體內重金屬含量與其秋冬季節的棲地和食性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Heavy metals contents of small mammals, the habitat use and food habits of fall and winter season in the landfill restoration park at Taichung, Taiwan.
指導教授:尤少彬
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生命科學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:垃圾掩埋場復育公園小型哺乳動物棲地利用食性重金屬
外文關鍵詞:LandfillRestoration parkSmall mammalsHabitat useFood habitsHeavy metals
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臺中市垃圾衛生掩埋場復育公園為一自垃圾掩埋後再規劃利用之大型復育公園,本研究目的為瞭解掩埋場封場後的復育公園內小型哺乳動物群聚之情形,進而由小型哺乳動物體內重金屬累積之含量,探討復育公園生態體系受重金屬污染之影響。於2005年11月7日至2005年11月15日在復育公園區域與附近鄰地設置200個取樣點(不含尚在掩埋之三期樣區),放置200根蠟米棒,由蠟米棒取食狀況瞭解小型哺乳動物於研究區域內活動分佈之狀況;根據蠟米棒被啃食之結果發現有70根被小型哺乳動物啃食,並於2005年11月14日至2005年12月1日設置鼠夾與活捉器各70個陷阱(三期樣區於2005年11月26日直接設置鼠夾與活捉器各12個陷阱)捕捉小型哺乳動物。在每個取樣點測量20個環境因子進行主成份分析(PCA),以瞭解復育公園與鄰地的植被結構,亦利用典型對應分析(CCA)分析小型哺乳動物群聚之組成與環境間的關係,瞭解各小型哺乳動物物種對不同環境中的棲地偏好;於實驗室內進行消化道內含物分析,分析每物種的食性組成,以瞭解小型哺乳動物之食性與棲地間的關係。利用ICP-OES儀器分析小型哺乳動物體內的重金屬含量,瞭解體內的重金屬含量與食性間的關係,進而分析小型哺乳動物體內重金屬累積於各器官之現況,探討以小型哺乳動物體內重金屬累積量監測並評估復育公園生態系受重金屬污染之潛在影響。
在2582籠次的捕獲努力量中,共捕獲8種小型哺乳動物,包含5種囓齒目和3種食蟲目;囓齒目鼠科之鬼鼠(Bandicota indica) 2隻、家鼷鼠(Mus musculus) 1隻、小黃腹鼠(Rattus losea) 84隻、赤背條鼠(Apodemus agrarius) 89隻、月鼠(Mus caroli) 83隻;食蟲目之臭鼩(Suncus murinus) 17隻、臺灣灰鼩鼱(Crocidura attenuata) 23隻、小麝鼩(Crocidura suaveolens) 81隻。小型哺乳動物在秋冬季節棲地利用結果顯示小黃腹鼠偏好在復育公園草原和芒果樹林棲地;在微棲地上偏好草本垂直植被多樣性與林冠層覆蓋度皆高的環境中出現。赤背條鼠亦偏好於芒果樹林和復育公園草原棲地;在微棲地上偏好草本垂直植被多樣性、木本植物種數、木本植物最高高度與林冠層覆蓋度皆高的環境中出現。月鼠偏好在復育公園草原棲地;在微棲地上偏好禾本科植物種數高、地表石礫覆蓋度低的環境中出現。臭鼩和臺灣灰鼩鼱偏好在南側邊緣地帶棲地;在微棲地上偏好石礫覆蓋度高之邊緣地帶環境中。小麝鼩偏好在復育公園草原與三期樣區之棲地;在微棲地上偏好在禾本科植物種數高、石礫覆蓋度低的環境中出現。食性分析結果顯示囓齒目為植食性動物,食蟲目為食蟲性動物;其中囓齒目小黃腹鼠食性寬度最高,月鼠次之,赤背條鼠最低,食性互有重疊,三種食蟲目鼩鼱食性寬度差異小且食性重疊度高,但提供食蟲目鼩鼱的資源豐富,由小型哺乳動物棲地利用和食性之結果,推測共域型小型哺乳動物於復育公園中有部分資源分割使用以避開競爭之情形。而小型哺乳動物體內重金屬濃度含量顯示Cu累積量以肝臟或腎臟最高;Zn累積量以骨頭最高,其次為肝臟;Cd累積量以腎臟最高,其次為肝臟;Pb較會累積於骨頭部位中;Cr累積於鼠隻體內部位較少;Ni在各物種體內部位佔有一定比例,但沒有累積於特定器官中。而食蟲目體內重金屬累積量大致上高於囓齒目;食物鏈中食蟲目的營養位階高於囓齒目,能累積更多的重金屬於體內,因此以食蟲目小麝鼩當作監測復育公園環境之生物性指標,評估重金屬於復育公園中之潛在影響。
Taichung landfill park was designed as a habitat restoration park to provide ecological services for general public. The purposes of my study is to find out the small mammal community assemblage in the park, and to examine the heavy metal contents in the organs of 6 small mammal species in order to assess the potential impacts of heavy metal pollutant on the ecosystem of the landfill park.
Four sampling plots (restoration park, mango woods, southern edge, and third-stage sites) with totally 200 trap stations were set between the 7th of November and the 1st of December in 2005 in the studying area. In order to examine the activity and distribution of each small mammals, rice paraffin sticks were placed at each trap stations between the 7th of November and the 14th of November in 2005, and the result shows 70 rice paraffin sticks were bit by rodents. According to the presence of toothmarks on paraffin sticks in trap stations, small mammals were trapped by snap-traps and shermans live-traps between the 14th of November and the 1st of December in 2005. Additionally, small mammals were trapped by 12 snap-traps and 12 shermans live-traps in third-stage sites between the 26th of November and the 1st of December in 2005. In order to evaluate the habitat preferences of small mammals, 20 habitat variables were measured at each trap stations. I use principal components analysis (PCA) to reduce the numbers of dependent variables, and use the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to evaluate the further correlations between small mammals and environment factors. I collected food residues in digestive tracts of small mammals to examine the food utilization of each species. The tissues of the main organs including heart, lung, liver, kidney, and femur were sampled for analyzing. the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the tissues were determined by ICP-OES.
A total of 8 species including 5 species of rodentia and 3 species of insectivora were trapped from 82 sampling sites within 2582 trapping times. The rodent species are Bandicota indica (2), Mus musculus (1), Rattus losea (84), Apodemus agrarius (89) and Mus caroli (83). The insectivore species are Suncus murinus (17), Crocidura attenuate (23) and Crocidura suaveolens (81).
In the fall and winter, Rattus losea had a preference for grassland in restoration park and mango woods, and utilized the herb habitats with higher vertical diversity and canopy coverage. Apodemus agrarius prefer to live in mango woods and grass restoration park sites, and it utilized herb habitats with higher vertical diversity, woody plant number, maximum height of woody plant and canopy coverage than other microhabitats. Mus caroli had a preference for grassland in restoration park sites, and utilized habitats with higher category number of grass and lower rock coverage. Suncus murinus and Crocidura attenuate prefer to live in the southern edge area, and utilized habitats with higher rock coverage . Crocidura suaveolens had a preference for grass restoration park and third-stage sites, and utilized grass habitats with higher category number of vegetation and lower rock coverage. The result of food content analysis shows that the rodents were herbivorous and the insectivora were insectivorous in their habits patterns respectively. Rattus losea has highest Shannon-Wiener''s niche breath index within 3 species of rodents, and Mus caroli was the second. The rodents have high overlapping in food habits, but the insectivores were not. The niche breath index also indicate that insectivores have less overlapping in food habits patterns, which shows that they may have abundant food resources on study sites. So I suppose the six sympatric small mammals have different habitat usage and food habit patterns in landfill restoration park, and the inter-species competition was inconspicuous.
The Cadmium was commonly found in the kidneys, and have higher concentration in the Insectivora, Crocidura attenuate and Crocidura suaveolen, which have the highest Cd concentrations. The concentration of Chromium was less in the tissues of small mammals. The livers have the highest Copper concentrations, and Cu concentrations in insectivorous were higher than rodents. Nickel was found in tissues of small mammals, but not show a conspicuous accumulation in any organs. Lead was found in the femurs of small mammals, especially in the insectivorous. The highest Zinc concentrations were found in the femurs, especially in herbivorous rodent, Rattus losea.
This study provides the first data of heavy metals contents in small mammals from a landfill restoration park. From the result, I suggest that the insectivora, Crocidura suaveolens, is a good bioindicator for metal pollution.
總目錄
表目錄…Ⅲ
圖目錄…Ⅳ
附錄…Ⅴ
第一章、前言…1
一、垃圾衛生掩埋場復育公園…1
二、重金屬…3
三、重金屬之生物有效性與生物指標…8
四、臺灣地區小型哺乳動物之棲地與食性…9
五、研究目的…10
第二章、材料方法…11
一、研究區域…11
二、野外調查…12
三、實驗室分析…15
第三章、資料處理與分析…22
一、蠟米棒的取食監測小型哺乳動物群聚之分佈…22
二、估算小型哺乳動物群聚之數量…22
三、微棲地之環境因子(植被結構)分析…22
四、小型哺乳動物群聚之分佈與環境因子之關係…22
五、小型哺乳動物之食性分析…23
六、小型哺乳動物體內重金屬含量濃度…25
七、統計分析軟體…25
第四章、結果…26
一、小型哺乳動物群聚之分佈…26
二、微棲地之植被結構分析…27
三、小型哺乳動物群聚分佈與環境因子之關係…28
四、小型哺乳動物之食性…29
五、小型哺乳動物體內重金屬含量…32
第五章、討論…35
一、陷阱之結果探討小型哺乳動物種類與數量之分佈…35
二、小型哺乳動物棲地利用與食性之探討…35
三、小型哺乳動物體內重金屬含量之探討…41
第六章、結論…49
第七章、參考文獻…51
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