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研究生:陳銘坤
研究生(外文):Ming-Kun Chen
論文名稱:植物中調控開花時間、花器形成與老化相關基因之選殖與分析
論文名稱(外文):Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Genes Controlling Flower Initiation, Formation, and Senescence in Plants
指導教授:楊長賢楊長賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Hsien Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生物科技學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:阿拉伯芥
外文關鍵詞:Arabidopsisflower
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本實驗主要是對植物中5個MADS box基因做特性及功能性之探討。首先是由百合 (lily, Lilium longiflorum) 中選殖出的3個MADS box基因-Lily MADS Box Gene 5 (LMADS5)、LMADS6與LMADS7,其序列與MADS box基因中的SQUA-subfamily有極高的相似性。這3個基因的表現情形有部分類似,都會表現在營養期的莖與花序分生組織。不過,LMADS5/6均會高表現在營養葉與雌蕊,LMADS7卻沒有表現在這2個位置。若在阿拉伯芥異位表現這3個基因,都會造成阿拉伯芥提早開花、出現終結花序、花萼轉變為雌蕊狀與花瓣轉變為雄蕊狀。若在阿拉伯芥的ap1突變株異位表現LMADS6/7,則ap1阿拉伯芥突變的性狀就可以恢復成野生型。這些結果顯示LMADS5/6/7的功能與開花起始和花器的形成相關。此外,百合的LMADS6/7可以救回阿拉伯芥的ap1突變性狀,表示在SQUA/AP1 subfamily的MADS box基因並非必須擁有C端的保守性區域 (paleoAP1 or euAP1 motif) 才有完整的功能 (第一章)。
異位表現阿拉伯芥之MADS box基因-Forever Young Flower (FYF) 會造成轉殖阿拉伯芥提早開花和延遲花器的老化與脫離。FYF在花苞授粉前有高表現,授粉後表現量逐漸降低。在FYF::GUS轉基因植物中,1或2個星期小苗的葉基部可以偵測到GUS的活性,在花苞授粉前的花蕚、花瓣、這兩個花器的離層與花梗的基部也可以偵測到GUS的活性,而在授粉後GUS的活性就逐漸降低,在果莢時只有離層有些許的表現。IDA::FYF的花器也會延遲脫離,可能是IDA的表現受到FYF抑制的結果。由此可知,FYF與花器的老化與脫離相關。將35S::FYF轉基因植物以乙烯處理之後,延遲花器老化與脫離的性狀並沒有消失,顯示FYF可能影響乙烯的訊息傳遞。經由real-time PCR或microarray的結果顯示,乙烯訊息傳遞的部份基因,如EDF1/2/4與AtERF1/2/5在35S::FYF轉基因植物中被抑制;花器老化與脫離相關基因中,IDA在35S::FYF轉基因植物中被抑制,AtZFP2則是被誘導,HAESA與HWS則不受影響。本實驗結果顯示,FYF經由抑制乙烯的訊息傳遞與IDA的表現,以及誘導AtZFP2的表現,因此控制花器的老化與脫離 (第二章)。
將文心蘭之OMADS1基因以35S::OMADS1-GR轉殖入阿拉伯芥,以DEX處理不同時間後,以microarray的實驗來分析阿拉伯芥中受OMADS1調控的直接下游基因。結果顯示,DEX處理後高表現基因有97個,低表現的基因有68個。TETRASPANIN 9 (TET9)、AGAMOUS LIKE 18 (AGL18) 與SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 13 (STP13) 是其中3個高表現的基因,在這3個基因的promoter都有CArG box,因此這3個基因可能是受OMADS1調控的直接下游基因。TET9是老化相關蛋白質 (senescence-associated protein)。35S::TET9轉基因植物之花藥發育不全且不開裂,因此造成轉基因植物有不孕的性狀。STP13是單醣轉運蛋白質 (monosaccharide transporter protein),35S::STP13轉基因植物的會提早開花,可能是細胞內glucose濃度改變,因此誘導表現開花基因造成早開花。AGL18是MADS box基因,35S:: AGL18轉基因植物沒有明顯異於野生型的性狀 (第三章)。
Five MADS box genes were characterized in this study. Lily MADS Box Gene 5 (LMADS5)、LMADS6 and LMADS7 showed high homology to the SQUA subfamily of MADS box genes were isolated and characterized from the lily (Lilium longiflorum). The expression pattern for these three genes was similar and their RNA was detected in vegetative stem and inflorescence meristem. LMADS5, 6 were highly expressed in vegetative leaves and carpel whereas the LMADS7 expression was absent. Ectopic expression of LMADS5, 6 or 7 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed novel phenotypes by flowering early and producing terminal flowers. Homeotic conversion of sepals to carpelloid and petal to stamen-like structures were also observed in 35S::LMADS5, 6 or 7 flowers. Ectopic expression of LMADS6 or LMADS7 was able to complement the ap1 flower defect in transgenic Arabidopsis ap1 mutant plants. These results strongly indicated that the function of these three lily genes was involved in flower formation as well as in floral induction. Furthermore, the ability for lily LMADS 6 and 7 to complement the Arabidopsis ap1 mutant provided further evidence to show that the conserved motifs (paleoAP1 or euAP1) in C terminus of SQUA/AP1 subfamily of MADS box genes is not strictly necessary for their function (Chapter 1).
Ectopic expression of Forever Young Flower (FYF), a MADS box gene of Arabidopsis, caused significantly delayed flower senescence and abscission in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression of FYF was highly detected in flower buds and was significantly decreased after pollination. In FYF::GUS flowers, the GUS activity was strongly detected in sepals, petals and the abscission zones (AZs) of both flower organs and pedicel of young flower buds and was significantly decreased in mature flowers. Ectopic expression of FYF specifically in the AZ exhibited the delay of abscission for flower organs in IDA::FYF Arabidopsis due to the inhibition of IDA by FYF. This indicated that FYF activity is required for controlling both senescence and abscission of the flower organs. The delayed senescence and abscission of the flower organs in 35S::FYF Arabidopsis was unaffected by the ethylene treatment. Downstream genes of ethylene signaling pathway such as AtERF1/2/5 and EDF1/2/4 were repressed in 35S::FYF transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the expression of senescence/abscission associated genes was down-regulated (IDA), up-regulated (AtZFP2) or unaffected (HAESA/HWS) in 35S::FYF flowers. Our data suggested a novel role for MADS box gene FYF in controlling the floral senescence and abscission by regulating downstream of ethylene perception, IDA and AtZFP2 expression (Chapter 2).
To investigate the direct target genes regulated by Oncidium MADS box gene OMADS1, microarray analysis was performed from 35S::OMADS1-GR transgenic Arabidopsis after DEX treatment. 97 up-regulated and 68 down-regulated genes were identified in the microarray analysis respectively. Three significantly up-regulated genes TETRASPANIN 9 (TET9), AGAMOUS LIKE 18 (AGL18) and SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 13 (STP13) were further analyzed. CArG boxes were identified in the promoter region of TET9, AGL18 and STP13. This suggested that TET9, AGL18 and STP13 could be the direct targets of OMADS1. The 35S::TET9 transgenic Arabidopsis showed male sterility due to the defects in anther dehiscence and development. Ectopic expression of STP13 in Arabidopsis caused early flowering probably due to the alteration of the glucose contents in transgenic plants. Ectopic expression of AGL18 did not cause obviously change in phenotype compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. The relationship between AGL6、OMADS1、up/down-regulated genes and genes for floral transition will be discussed (Chapter 3).
第一章 百合三個AP1-like MADS box基因調控花的轉變與形成之功能分析
Functional Analysis of Three Lily (Lilium longiflorum) APETALA1-like MADS Box Genes in Regulating Floral Transition and Formation
摘要 1
Abstract 2
前言 3
材料與方法 5
結果
一、從百合中選殖LMADS6、LMADS7 10
二、LMADS5/6/7蛋白質含有LPPWML保守性序列 (LPPWML motif) 10
三、LMADS5/6/7的表現、分子選殖與載體構築 10
四、35S::LMADS6/7轉基因阿拉伯芥會提早開花與造成花器上的變異 11
五、異位表現LMADS6/7可以挽救ap1突變株之性狀 11
討論 13
參考文獻 16
圖表
表1-1. LMADS5/6/7與類似蛋白質之胺基酸比較 21
表1-2. ap1、35S::LMADS6/ap1與35S::LMADS/ap1阿拉伯芥中花瓣數目之統計 22
表1-3. 本章中序列比對的基因 23
表1-4. 本章所使用之PCR引子 (primer) 序列 24
圖1-1. LMADS6 cDNA分子選殖之凝膠電泳圖 25
圖1-2. 百合LMADS6 cDNA之序列及其相對應胺基酸 26
圖1-3. LMADS5、LMADS6、LMADS7與SQUA-like蛋白質之胺基酸序列比較 27
圖1-4. LMADS7 cDNA分子選殖之凝膠電泳圖 28
圖1-5. 百合LMADS7 cDNA之序列及其相對應胺基酸 29
圖1-6. LMADS5、LMADS6、LMADS7與SQUA-like蛋白質之胺基酸序列演化樹 30
圖1-7. SQUA-like與AGL2-like蛋白質C端胺基酸之比對 31
圖1-8. LMADS5、LNMADS6與LMADS7之北方雜合分析 32
圖1-9. 35S::LMADS6與35S::LNMADS7轉基因阿拉伯芥之外觀 33
圖1-10. 轉基因植物之鑑定 34
圖1-11. 35S::LMADS6 ap1與35S::LNMADS7 ap1之外觀 35
圖1-12. 轉基因植物之鑑定 36
圖1-13. AP1/AGL9 群MADS box基因演化途徑之假設 37
附圖
附圖1-1. Gen-KB DNA Ladder 38
附圖1-2. pGEM®-T Easy vector之圖譜 39
附圖1-3. pBI121之圖譜 40

第二章 阿拉伯芥FYF由調節乙烯訊息傳遞來控制花器的老化與脫離
A MADS box gene Forever Young Flower controls floral organ senescence and abscission by primarily regulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis
摘要 41
Abstract 42
前言 43
材料與方法 45
結果
一、FYF、AGL71與AGL72的表現、分子選殖與載體構築 49
二、35S::FYF轉基因阿拉伯芥會延遲花器的老化與脫離 49
三、FYF啟動子之分子選殖、載體構築與表現分析 50
四、IDA::FYF與IDA::GUS之分子選殖、載體構築與轉基因植物性狀分析 50
五、AGL15與AGL18的表現受到FYF的抑制 51
六、35::FYF轉基因植物對乙烯處理較不敏感 52
七、FYF抑制乙烯的訊息傳遞 52
八、經由microarray的實驗來尋找受FYF調控的基因 52
九、35S::FYF-GR之分子選殖、載體構築與轉基因植物性狀分析 53
十、經由microarray的實驗來尋找受FYF調控的直接下游基因 54
討論 55
參考文獻 58
圖表
表2-1. 部分在35S::FYF轉基因阿拉伯芥中被誘導與被抑制的基因 62
表2-2. 部分以DEX處理35S::FYF-GR轉基因植物3或6小時後被誘導的基因 63
表2-3. 本章所使用之PCR引子 (primer) 序列 64
表2-4. 本章real time PCR時使用之引子 (primer) 序列 65
圖2-1. 以RT-PCR偵測FYF、AGL71和AGL72基因的表現 66
圖2-2. FYF、AGL71與AGL72 cDNA之分子選殖與構築 67
圖2-3. 阿拉伯芥異位表現FYF基因延遲花器老化與脫離 68
圖2-4. 轉基因植物之鑑定 69
圖2-5. FYF啟動子之分子選殖與構築 70
圖2-6. FYF::GUS轉基因阿拉伯芥的GUS染色圖 71
圖2-7. 以real-time PCR偵測野生型與35::FYF轉基因植物中乙烯與花朵老化相關基因之表現 72
圖2-8. IDA::FYF之分子選殖與構築 73
圖2-9. IDA ::GUS之分子選殖與構築 74
圖2-10. IDA::FYF轉基因阿拉伯芥延遲花器的脫離 75
圖2-11. 35S::FYF轉基因阿拉伯芥對外加乙烯的反應 76
圖2-12. 35S::FYF-GR之分子選殖與構築 77
圖2-13. 35S::AGL42-GR轉基因阿拉伯芥會受到DEX的誘導 78
圖2-14. FYF基因之功能與花器的老化與脫離之關係 79
附圖
附圖2-1 pBI-mGFP之圖譜 80
附圖2-2. pEpyon01K 之圖譜 81
附圖2-3. pEpyon12K 之圖譜 82
附圖2-4. pBI-GR 之圖譜 83


第三章 文心蘭OMADS1在阿拉伯芥中直接下游基因之鑑定、選殖與功能分析
Identification, Molecular Cloning and Functional Analylsis of Direct Target Genes in Arabidopsis Regulated by OMADS1 in Oncidium Gower Ramsey
摘要 84
Abstract 85
前言 86
材料與方法 88
結果
一、經由microarray的實驗來尋找阿拉伯芥中受OMADS1調控的直接下游基因 92
二、TET9、AGL18與STP13的分子選殖與載體構築 92
三、TET9、AGL18與STP13的基因轉殖與轉基因植物之性狀分析 93
討論 94
參考文獻 96
圖表
表3-1. 部分在35S::OMADS1-GR轉基因阿拉伯芥中被誘導或被抑制的基因 98
表 3-2. 35S::TET9、35S::AGL18與35S::STP13轉基因植物的開花時間與葉片數 99
表 3-3. 本章所使用之PCR引子 (primer) 序列 100
圖 3-1. 預測TET9、AGL18與STP13在promoter區域之MADS box protein binding site 101
圖 3-2. OMADS1誘導TET9、AGL18與STP13之表現 102
圖 3-3. TET9、AGL18與STP13 cDNA分子選殖之凝膠電泳圖 103
圖 3-4. 35S::AGL18、35S::STP13與35S::TET9轉基因阿拉伯芥之外觀 104
圖 3-5. 轉基因植物之鑑定 105
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