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研究生:詹美鈴
研究生(外文):Mei-Ling Chan
論文名稱:臺灣毛嚙蟲下目和集嚙蟲下目(嚙蟲目:嚙蟲亞目)之分類與嚙蟲目生態學特性分析
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomy of Caeciliusetae and Homilopsocidea (Psocoptera:Psocomorpha) from Taiwan and Analysis on the Ecological Characters of Psocoptera
指導教授:楊正澤楊正澤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Tze Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:255
中文關鍵詞:嚙蟲目分類毛嚙蟲下目集嚙蟲下目馬氏網鳥巢
外文關鍵詞:TaxonomyPsocopteraCaeciliusetaeHomilopsocideaMalaise trapBirdnest
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本論文包括兩部份,以形態學特徵進行臺灣產毛嚙蟲下目(Caeciliusetae) 和集嚙蟲下目 (Homilopsocidea) 之傳統分類學研究,及分析馬氏網 (Malaise trap) 及鳥巢 (birdnests) 採集之嚙蟲相、探討嚙蟲之棲所環境等生態特徵。在形態學部份,除對每個物種進行描述與測量外,在嚙蟲研究中,首次嘗試以 AUTO-MONTAGE 疊圖方式進行各部位形態結構之觀察與拍照,解決過去光學繪圖之景深不夠及焦點不明確的問題。臺灣有記錄的嚙蟲種類原有 10 科 25 屬 41 種,本論文共描述 10 科 32 屬 65 種,其中包括 9 新種,Anoculaticaecilius choui Chan and Yang sp. nov.、Caecilius buckleus Chan and Yang sp. nov.、Epicaecilius latus Chan and Yang sp. nov.、Valenzuela multifleckus Chan and Yang sp.nov.、V. fuscotibialis Chan and Yang sp. nov.、Enderleinella taiwana Chan and Yang sp. nov.、E. yuanfengensis Chan and Yang sp. nov.、Stenopsocus takahashii Chan and Yang sp. nov. 和 Pseudocaecilius lini Chan and Yang sp. nov.;7新紀錄屬、16 新紀錄種、2 新組合 Cubipilis niger (Enderlein, 1906)、Endereinella exilis (Li, 2002)、4個新異名:2 個鑑定錯誤種 Matsumuraiella enderleini Banks, 1937 為 M. radiopicta Enderlein, 1906之異名及 Pseudocaecilius formosanus (Banks, 1937) 為 P. citricola (Ashmead, 1879) 之異名,2種移回原來的屬 Valenzuela fraternus (Banks, 1937) 為 Caecilius fraternus Banks, 1937 之異名和 V. himalayanus (Enderlein, 1903) 為 C. himalayanus Enderlein, 1903 之異名。本研究更提供臺灣產嚙蟲目共計 24 科 59 屬 105 種之名錄及嚙蟲各分類階層之檢索表。生態學特性包括棲所環境分析部分,檢視在春陽 (1,230m)、梅峰 (2,125m) 和鳶峰 (2,756m) 3 個地點以馬氏網採集之 6,921 隻嚙蟲,結果顯示在春陽地區之科級多樣性較高;3 個樣區均以毛嚙蟲科個體數最高。檢視臺灣特有生物保育中心鳥巢蒐藏 406 個,其中有 213 個發現嚙蟲共計 2,663 隻,以畫眉亞科鳥巢發現嚙蟲個體數最多,發現的嚙蟲科數多樣性也最高;嚙蟲各科出現頻度則以書蝨科個體數最多,佔59%,其次是外嚙蟲科,佔27%。透過馬氏網和鳥巢的嚙蟲相分析,更發現二者之嚙蟲科級組成之差異甚大,也可藉此反映出嚙蟲之分布與棲所環璄的相關性。
This thesis comprises two studies: the taxonomy of two infraorders, Caeciliusetae and Homilopsocidea, by using morphological characters and the investigation of ecological characters based on psocopteran fauna which were collected by Malaise trap from 3 elevation gradients and on the fauna in 213 birdnests. In morphological study, each species was described and measured. Furthermore, the fine structures of each species were photoed by using AUTO-MONTAGE system overlaying different focused pictures to get well-focused images for taxonomy. There were 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species of these two infraorders recorded from Taiwan in the past. The result of this study described 10 families, 32 genera, and 65 species totally, including 9 species new to science, i. e., Anoculaticaecilius choui Chan and Yang sp. nov., Caecilius buckleus Chan and Yang sp. nov., Epicaecilius latus Chan and Yang sp. nov., Valenzuela multifleckus Chan and Yang sp.nov., Valenzuela fuscotibialis Chan and Yang sp. nov., Enderleinella taiwana Chan and Yang sp. nov., E. yuanfengensis Chan and Yang sp. nov., Stenopsocus takahashii Chan and Yang sp. nov. and Pseudocaecilius lini Chan and Yang sp. nov. Seven genera and 16 species are new records to Taiwan and 2 new combinations Cubipilis niger (Enderlein, 1906), Endereinella exilis (Li, 2002). There are 2 new synonyms by misidentification, Matsumuraiella enderleini Banks, 1937 is new synonym of M. radiopicta Enderlein, 1906, 1907 and Pseudocaecilius formosanus (Banks, 1937) is new synonym of P. citricola (Ashmead, 1879), 2 new synonyms by revived combinations, Valenzuela fraternus (Banks, 1937) new synonym of Caecilius fraternus Banks, 1937 and V. himalayanus (Enderlein, 1903) is new synonym of C. himalayanus Enderlein, 1903. The checklist of Psocoptera comprises 24 families, 59 genera and 105 species occurred in Taiwan and keys to the higher categories are also provided in this study. In addition, there are study also provided the checklist of Psocoptera. For the study of ecological characters of 6,921 specimens of Psocoptera captured by Malaise trap from 3 sites, Chunyang (1,230m), Meifeng (2,125m) and Yuanfeng (2,756m) were analysed and showed psocoptera of family level in numbers according to the elevation. Of 3 sites, Caeciliusidae is the dominant group in the individual number. By checking psocoptera fauna in 406 birdnests from the collection of TEFRI, totally, 2,663 specimens were found from 213 birdnests. The result showed that birdnests of Timaliidae contained highest amount of psocoptera individuals and also got the most diverse families of Psocoptera. The highest frequency of psocoptera family occurred in birdnests is Liposcelidae (59%), and follows by Ectopsocidae (27%). Through analysis of Psocoptera fauna collected from Malaise trap and birdnest showed the different composition of psocoptera and reflected the varied habitats between them.
目錄
中文摘要 ..........................................................................................................................i
英文摘要 .........................................................................................................................ii
前言 .............................................................................................................................. ...1
往昔研究 .........................................................................................................................3
一、嚙蟲目高階分類系統沿革 ...................................................................................3
二、毛嚙蟲下目與集嚙蟲下目之分類沿革 ...............................................................4
三、臺灣的嚙蟲目研究.................................................................................................5
四、嚙蟲目地理分佈 ...................................................................................................5
五、嚙蟲棲所特性 ......................................................................................................5
材料與方法 .....................................................................................................................8
一、嚙蟲標本來源 .....................................................................................................8
二、嚙蟲標本製作與保存 ...........................................................................................9
三、形態特徵術語 .......................................................................................................9
四、形態學研究方法 .................................................................................................11
五、馬氏網嚙蟲相分析 .............................................................................................13
 六、鳥巢嚙蟲分析 ………………………………………………………………….13
七、數值分析………………………………………………………………………..14
結果與討論 ...................................................................................................................15
一、傳統分類研究......................................................................................................15
嚙蟲目 (Order Psocoptera) ..................................................15
嚙蟲亞目 (Suborder Psocomorpha).......................15
(一) 毛嚙蟲下目Infraorder Caeciliusetae....................16
1.毛嚙蟲科 Family Caeciliusidae .....................................................................17
(1)無眼毛嚙蟲屬 Genus Anoculaticaecilius Li, 1997 ..............................19
周氏無眼毛嚙蟲 Anoculaticaecilius choui Chan and Yang sp. nov. ...19
(2)毛嚙蟲屬 Genus Caecilius Curtis, 1837 ..............................................20
暗毛嚙蟲 Caecilius confusus Banks, 1937 .....................................21
盤扣毛嚙蟲 Caecilius buckleus Chan and Yang sp. nov. .....................24
友愛毛嚙蟲 Caecilius fraternus Banks, 1937 Reinstated combination .
...................................................................................................................25
褐翅毛嚙蟲 Caecilius fuscopterus (Latreille, 1799) ............................26
喜馬拉雅毛嚙蟲 Caecilius himalayanus Enderlein, 1903 Reinstated
combination............................................................................................28
相似毛嚙蟲 Caecilius similaris Banks, 1937 .......................................29
(3)盔嚙蟲屬 Genus Coryphosmila Enderlein, 1925 ……………….........31
釘斧盔嚙蟲Coryphosmila dolabrata (Hagen, 1858) …………………32
(4)岱嚙蟲屬 Genus Dypsocus Hagen, 1866 .............................................33
達邦岱嚙蟲 Dypsocus tappanensis Okamoto, 1910 ............................34
(5) 上毛嚙蟲屬Genus Epicaecilius Mockford, 2000 ..................................36
寬葉上毛嚙蟲 Epicaecilius latus Chan and Yang sp. nov. …………...36
(6)等嚙蟲屬 Genus Isophanes Banks, 1937 .............................................38
惑等嚙蟲 Isophanes decipiens Banks, 1937 .........................................38
(7)柯嚙蟲屬 Genus Kodamaius Okamoto, 1907 ......................................39
短角柯嚙蟲 Kodamaius brevicornis Okamoto, 1907 ...........................40
(8)圍毛嚙蟲屬 Genus Pericaecilius Mockford, 2000 ..............................42
特異圍毛嚙蟲 Pericaecilius singularis (Banks, 1937) ........................42
(9)狹毛嚙蟲屬 Stenocaecilius Mockford, 2000 ........................................44
安地狹毛嚙蟲 Stenocaecilius antillanus (Banks, 1938) .............................45
(10)梵嚙蟲屬 Genus Valenzuela Navas, 1924 ............................................46
乾梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela aridus (Hagen, 1858) .........................................46
黃背梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela flavidorsalis (Okamoto, 1901) .......................47
肛斑梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela gonostigma (Enderlein, 1906) ........................48
痣斑梵嚙蟲Valenzuela maculistigma (Enderlein, 1903) .......................49
瑪氏梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela mueggenbergi (Enderlein, 1903) ...................50
繁點毛嚙蟲 Valenzuela multifleckus Chan and Yang sp. nov. .............52
星雲梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela nebulomaculatus Mockford, 2000 ..................53
岡本梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela okamotoi (Banks, 1937) .................................56
黃紋梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela oyamai (Enderlein, 1906) ..............................58
斜紅斑梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela plagioerythrinus (Li, 1993) ........................59
足梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela podacromelas (Enderlein, 1908) ........................60
痣梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela stigmatus (Okamoto, 1910) ................................61
優雅梵嚙蟲 Valenzuela gracilis (Okamoto, 1910) ...............................62
暗脛毛嚙蟲 Valenzuela fuscotibialis Chan and Yang sp. nov. .............64
(11)安嚙蟲屬Genus Enderleinella Badonnel, 1932 ....................................65
小安嚙蟲 Enderleinella exilis Li, 2002 com. nov...................66
臺灣安嚙蟲 Enderleinella taiwana Chan and Yang sp. nov................67.
鳶峰安嚙蟲 Enderleinella yuanfengensis Chan and Yang sp. nov. ... 68
褐色安嚙蟲 Enderleinella lurida Li, 2002 ...........................................70
(12)副毛嚙蟲屬 Genus Paracaecilius Badonnel, 1931 ..............................71
日本副毛嚙蟲 Paracaecilius japanus (Enderlein, 1906) .....................72
2. 狹嚙蟲科 Stenopsocidae ..............................................................................73
(13)肘狹嚙蟲屬 Genus Cubipilis Li, 1993 .................................................73
蚜肘狹嚙蟲 Cubipilis aphidiformis (Enderlein, 1906) .......................73
黑肘狹嚙蟲 Cubipilis niger (Enderlein, 1906) com. nov....................75
(14)狹嚙蟲屬 Genus Stenopsocus Hagen, 1866 .........................................77
外狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus externus Banks, 1937 .......................................78
臺灣狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus formosanus Banks, 1937 ..............................79
真木狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus makii Takahashi, 1938 .................................81
脛狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus tibialis Banks, 1937 .........................................82
高橋氏狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus takahashii Chan and Yang sp. nov. .........84
徑斑狹嚙蟲 Stenopsocus radimaculatus Li, 1989 .............................86
3. 雙嚙蟲科Amphipsocidae ................................................................................87
(15)雙嚙蟲屬 Genus Amphipsocus McLachlan, 1872 ................................88
臺灣雙嚙蟲 Amphipsocus formosanus Okamoto, 1910 .......................88
(16)科嚙蟲屬 Genus Kolbia Bertkau, 1882 ................................................90
褐脈科嚙蟲 Kolbia fusconervosa Enderlein, 1906 ...............................91
(17)帶嚙蟲屬 Genus Taeniostigma Enderlein, 1901 ..................................92
痣帶嚙蟲 Taeniostigma ingens Enderlein, 1903 ...................................92
4. 離嚙蟲科 Dasydemellidae ...........................................................................94
(18)松村嚙蟲屬 Genus Matsumuraiella Enderlein, 1906 ..........................94
溢徑松村嚙蟲 Matsumuraiella radiopicta Enderlein, 1906 ................95
(二) 集嚙蟲下目 Infraorder Homilopsocidea ......................................................97
5. 姬嚙蟲科 Family Lachesillidae .......................97
(19)姬嚙蟲屬 Genus Lachesilla Westwood, 1840 ………………………..98
廣穀嚙蟲 Lachesilla pedicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) ..............................98
6. 外嚙蟲科 Family Ectopsocidae ..................................................................100
(20)類外嚙蟲屬 Genus Ectopsocopsis Badonnel, 1955 .………..………100
隱類外嚙蟲Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein, 1907) ................101
(21)外嚙蟲屬 Genus Ectopsocus McLachlan, 1899 .................................103
曼氏外嚙蟲 Ectopsocus maindroni Badonnel, 1935 ..........................104
南方外嚙蟲 Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga, 1904 ..........................105
香港外嚙蟲 Ectopsocus ornatus Thornton, 1962 ...............................106
7. 圍嚙蟲科 Family Peripsocidae ..................................................................107
(22)圍嚙蟲屬 Genus Peripsocus Hagen, 1866 .........................................108
狹翅圍嚙蟲 Peripsocus stenopterus Thornton and Wong, 1968…….108
棟圍嚙蟲 Peripsocus quercicola Enderlein, 1906….………………..109
8. 古嚙蟲科 Archipsocidae ............................................................................110
(23)古嚙蟲屬 Genus Archipsocus Hagen, 1882 ………………………...110
新近古嚙蟲 Archipsocus recens Enderlein, 1903 .............................111
9. 叉嚙蟲科 Pseudocaeciliidae .......................................................................112
(24)枚嚙蟲屬 Genus Mepleres Enderlein, 1926 ………………………...112
邊枚嚙蟲 Mepleres limbatus (Enderlein, 1908) ……………………..113
寬枚嚙蟲 Mepleres transverses (Banks, 1937) ……………………...114
(25)擬毛嚙蟲屬 Genus Mesocaecilius Okamoto, 1910 …………………114
四斑擬毛嚙蟲 Mesocaecilius quadrimaculatus Okamoto, 1910 .......115
(26)蛇叉嚙蟲屬 Genus Ophiodopelma Enderlein, 1908 ………………..116
斑翅蛇叉嚙蟲 Ophiodopelma ornatipenne (Enderlein, 1908) ……...117
(27)叉嚙蟲屬 Genus Pseudocaecilius Enderlein, 1903 …………………118
雙球叉嚙蟲Pseudocaecilius bibalbus Li, 1993 ...................................119
柑桔叉嚙蟲 Pseudocaecilius citricola (Ashmead, 1879) ................120
林氏叉嚙蟲 Pseudocaecilius lini Chan and Yang sp. nov. .................121
(28)歧叉嚙蟲屬 Genus Allocaecilius Lee and Thornton, 1967 ................123
中華歧叉嚙蟲 Allocaecilius sinensis Lee and Thornton, 1967 ..........123
(29)異叉嚙蟲屬 Genus Heterocaecilius Lee and Thornton, 1967 ............125
暗異叉嚙蟲 Heterocaecilius fuscus Yoshizawa, 1996 ........................125
(30)陽叉嚙蟲屬 Genus Phallocaecilius Lee and Thornton, 1967 ............126
密陽叉嚙蟲 Phallocaecilius hirsutus (Thornton, 1961) .....................127
10. 黑斑嚙蟲科 Philotarsidae ..........................................................................128
(31)阿嚙蟲屬 Genus Aaroniella Mockford, 1951 …………………...….128
毛列阿嚙蟲 Aaroniella serialis (Banks, 1937) ...................................129
11. 斑嚙蟲科 Mesopsocidae .............................................................................130
(32)斑嚙蟲屬Genus Mesopsocus Kolbe, 1880 …………………………..130
香港斑嚙蟲Mesopsocus hongkongensis Thornton, 1959 …………....131
二、臺灣嚙蟲目名錄 .................................................................................................133
三、馬氏網嚙蟲相分析 .............................................................................................138
四、鳥巢嚙蟲相分析 ................................................................................................141
五、數值分析...............................................................................................................145
結論 ......................................................................................………………………...146
參考文獻 .....................................................................................................................147
表格 ..........................................................................………………………………...154
圖版 .............................................................................................................................169
附錄 .............................................................................................................................243
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