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研究生:朱霈瑄
研究生(外文):Pei-Hsuan Chu
論文名稱:探討小麥草汁混濁沉澱的形成
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Haze Formation in Wheat Seedling Juice
指導教授:賴麗旭賴麗旭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:小麥草汁混濁沉澱
外文關鍵詞:wheat seedling juicehazesediment
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小麥草是為禾本科植物小麥(Triticum aestivum L.)所生長的嫩莖葉,近年來為極受到重視的功能性食品之一。然而小麥草汁於儲存期間若產生沉澱之現象,將造成品質之下降。本研究主要是探討蒸氣殺菁( 100 ℃,0、0.5、3、5或10分鐘)以及添加不同的金屬鹽類( NaCl、CaCl2 )及酚類( gallic acid、tannic acid )對於小麥草汁儲存期間沉澱混濁現象的形成,以及鑑定混濁活性蛋白/多酚,藉以作為食品加工業者改善小麥草汁品質的參考。結果發現,殺菁及添加澄清劑皆可增加小麥草汁於儲存期間的混濁安定性,並減緩沉澱的形成,可溶性蛋白含量及過氧化酶活性隨之下降; 然而殺菁可使總多酚、單寧酸及果膠含量隨之增加,相反於添加澄清劑者。電泳的結果顯示,當儲存過程中形成混濁沉澱時,小麥草汁上層液之13及51 kDa蛋白質含量下降,且此兩蛋白質對於單寧酸具有很強的親和力。而胺基酸分析亦顯示此二種蛋白質皆屬於疏水性蛋白。其等電點( pI )範圍皆為4-6,由光學顯微鏡觀察結果發現,蛋白質-多酚之沉澱物是由多酚類物質形成網狀結構將蛋白質包覆住,而鈣離子則會與酚類物質及蛋白質形成架橋之結晶狀構形。
Wheat seedling juice pressed from the tender small plant grown from wheat seed (Triticum aestivum L.) is getting lots of interest recently as one of the functional foods. However, the formation of haze/ precipitate during storage may decrease the quality of wheat seedling juice. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of steam blanching (100 ℃; 0, 0.5, 3, 5, 10 min) and addition of different salts/phenolic acid prior to juice pressing on the haze/ precipitate formation phenomenon in wheat seedling juice during storage, and identify the haze-active protein/ phenols, which may lead to industrial process for remediation or prevention of this quality defect in wheat grass juice. Blanching or addition of fining prior to juice pressing increased the cloudy stability and prevented precipitate formation in wheat grass juice during storage, accompanied with a decrease of soluble protein content and the peroxidase activity, while the total phenol, tannic acid and pectin content increased. Electrophoretic results revealed that two types of protein with a molecular mass of 13 and 51 kDa, respectively, decreased significantly when the haze and sediments formed during storage. Furthermore, both proteins had a strong tendency to associate with tannic acid. Amino acid analysis show that both proteins were hydrophobic protein. Light microscopy results revealed that protein-phenol haze particles like protein embedded in polymerized phenolics. Calcium can cause chemical cross- linking with protein to form a crystalline structure.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅷ
表目錄…………………………………………………………....ⅩI
壹、前言…………………………………………………….…….1
貳、文獻回顧………………………………………………………3
一、小麥草………………………………………….……….3
二、果汁混濁與沉澱的現象………………………….…….6
(一) 果汁膠體性質與混濁穩定之原理……….……..6
(二) 造成果汁混濁或沉澱的原因…………….……..9
(1) 生物性混濁與沉澱………….…..10
(2) 化學性混濁……………………….………..13
1. 果膠…………………………………………13
2. 澱粉…………………………………………14
3. 多醣類………………………………………15
4. 金屬離子……………………………………15
5. 多酚化合物與蛋白質………………………17
5.1 混濁活性多酚………………….……..17
5.2 混濁活性蛋白質……………….……..22
5.3 蛋白質與多酚的作用模式……….…..24
三、增加果汁混濁安定的方法…………………………….27
(一) 熱處理……………………………………………27
(二) 離心處理…………………………………………30
(三) 添加澄清劑………………………………………31
(1) 金屬離子-氯化鈉和氯化鈣……………… 31
(2) 酚類物質-沒食子酸和單寧酸…………… 32
参、研究目的………………………………………….………..34
肆、材料與方法………………………………………………...35
一、實驗材料……………………………………….……..35
(一) 小麥草……………………………………………35
(二) 其它試藥…………………………………………37
二、小麥草基本成分分析………………………………...38
三、不同處理之小麥草的製備…………………………...41
(一) 榨汁前蒸氣殺菁處理……………………………41
(二) 離心、過濾、調整可溶性固形物( 40Brix)含量.............................................………41
(三) 添加澄清劑之小麥草汁製備……………………41
(四) 儲存試驗…………………………………………42
四、理化性質分析………………………………………… 42
(一) 混濁度……………………………………………42
(二) 褐變度……………………………………………42
(三) 可溶性蛋白含量…………………………………43
(四) 總多酚含量………………………………………44
(五) 單寧酸含量………………………………………45
(六) 果膠含量…………………………………………45
(七) 過氧化酶活性……………………………………46
五、混濁活性蛋白之鑑定………………………………… 47
六、SDS-PAGE聚丙烯醯胺膠體電泳……………………… 47
七、蛋白質電溶離………………………………………… 51
八、水解胺基酸分析……………………………………… 51
九、混濁活性蛋白等電點( pI )測定…………………… 52
十、沉澱物構形觀察……………………………………… 55
十一、高液相層析-酚類化合物分析…………………… 56
十二、統計分析…………………………………………… 58
伍、結果與討論………………………………………………….59
一、小麥草之成分分析…………………………………….59
二、殺菁處理對小麥草汁的影響………………………….59
(一) 殺菁處理對小麥草之於儲存期間理化性質之影響…...............................................…59
(1) 混濁度之變化……………………….……..59
(2) 褐變度之變化……………………….……..63
(3) 可溶性蛋白、總多酚含量……………….…65
(4) 單寧酸含量……………………….………..68
(5) 果膠含量………………………….………..69
(6) 過氧化酶活性………………………….…..69
(二) 小麥草汁中混濁活性蛋白之電泳分析…………72
(三) 以SDS-PAGE 電泳鑑定分析TA-混濁活性蛋白…74
(四) 小麥草汁中混濁活性蛋白之胺基酸分析………78
(五) 小麥草汁中混濁活性蛋白之等電點分析………………..80
三、不同添加物對小麥草汁的影響……………………….84
(一) 添加澄清劑對小麥草汁於儲存期間理化性質之影響.................................................…84
(1) 混濁度之變化……………………….……..84
(2) 褐變度之變化………………………….…..86
(3) 可溶性蛋白、總多酚含量、單寧酸含量.…88
(4) 果膠含量…………………..…………..90
(5) 過氧化酶活性………………….…………..98
(二) 小麥草汁中混濁活性蛋白之電泳分析…………99
(三) 小麥草沉澱物構形觀察…………………………99
(四) 小麥草汁中混濁活性多酚之分析…………….104
陸、結論…………………………………………………………112
柒、參考文獻……………………………………………………114
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