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研究生:楊書綾
研究生(外文):Shu-Ling Yang
論文名稱:梅精麵包品質之評估
論文名稱(外文):Quality evaluation of mei-gin bread
指導教授:林金源林金源引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:梅精土司品質評估抗氧化性質呈味性質
外文關鍵詞:mei-gin breadquality evaluationanti-oxygen propertytasting judgement
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梅子屬於溫帶蕎薇科落葉果樹之核果類水果,主要栽培在台灣中部及中央山脈兩側海拔約300-1000公尺的山坡上。
有關梅精添加至於土司方面以提升烘焙食品的保健功效之研究,目前尚未有完整之文獻報告。因此本研究以添加不同溫度之梅精於麵糰中,製成含有不同梅精濃度之梅精土司,並以白土司當做對照組,進行其一般成份、物理性質、呈味品質、香氣成分、抗氧化性質、機能性成分、儲藏性質及官能品評之分析。
在一般成分方面,1.5%的梅精土司之粗纖維含量(3.02%)顯著高於1%及0.5%梅精土司(1.10%)及白土司所含者(1.81%)。在物理性質方面,四種土司的白度依序為白土司>0.5%梅精土司>1%梅精土司>1.5%梅精土司。X-射線繞射分析發現四種土司之繞射峰的強度會隨著儲藏時間增加而逐漸增強,且繞射圖譜會由V型光譜轉變成B型光譜。白土司、不同濃度之梅精土司於25℃下儲藏後,質地剖析之結果顯示隨著儲藏時間的增加,硬度有增加的趨勢,彈性、凝聚度、膠性度、咀嚼度及恢復力則隨著時間的增加而降低。
在呈味品質上,四種土司的核苷酸含量以1.0%梅精土司(508.6㎎/g)>1.5%梅精土司(406.6㎎/g)>0.5%梅精土司(419.1mg/g)>白土司(180.6㎎/g)。在可溶性醣類含量方面,1.5%梅精土司(15.91㎎/g)比1%梅精土司(12.34㎎/g)、0.5%梅精土司(11.6㎎/g)和白土司(6.22㎎/g)高。在香氣分析中,四種土司共可鑑定出110種的揮發性成分,而四種土司總揮發性成分量依序為: 1.5%梅精土司(4942ppb)>1.0%梅精土司>0.5%梅精土司(3564ppb)>白土司(1758.98ppb)。因此,梅精可提高土司中的鮮味及甜味,進而提高土司的風味及營養價值。
在抗氧化性質方面,四種土司皆以乙醇萃的效果最佳。在抗氧化力的部份,當濃度在20mg/ml時,四種土司之抗氧化力排降序為1.5%梅精土司(95.6%)>1.0%梅精土司(90.6%)>0.5%梅精土司(78.0%)>白土司(31.7%),在還原力部分,隨著濃度的升高, 四種土司的還原力及捕捉1,1-二苯基-苦味胼基團自由基能力也會隨之增強;四種土司 在總生菌數方面,當儲藏至第六天時, 1.5%梅精土司(0 log CFU/ml)、1.0%梅精土司(5.49 CFU/ml)、及0.5%梅精土司(5.65 CFU/ml)的總生菌數明顯比白土司(6.74 CFU/ml)低。在感官品評之消費者喜好性分析上, 1.0%梅精土司與0.5%梅精土司在%以上結果, 土司中添加梅精,除了增加口感外,還可提供消費者對保健型的烘焙產品的新選擇。
Plums, nut fruit of cistus species grown in mild climates are mainly planted in central Taiwan and both hillsides of central range about 300 to 1000 meters high. No complete documents about adding plum essence to toast for the purpose of improving health have been reported yet. This study focused on analyzing the toasts addled with different concentrations of plum essence to compare with the white toast in terms of general ingredients, storage and outer appearance evauation.
For the general ingredients, the toast with 1.5% plum essence contained the highest crude fiber level than those of 1%、0.5% plum essence toast or the white toast . For the physical properties, the toast with 1.5% plum essence had the smallest specific volume. In chrominace, the whiteness declined with the increase of plum essence concentrations. Under the test of X-ray diffration, the intensity increased with the storage time among the samples. However, However, V-shaped light pattern was turned into B-shaped one. After stored at 25℃, all samples become much touger as storage time increased. However, the flexilility, condensity, plasticity, chewing level and recovery decreased with storage time lengthend.
For tasting judgements, 1% plum toast contained the largest amount of nucleotide.0.5% plum toast comes second and the white toast is at the bottom. Besides 1.5% plum toast the largest amount of the resolving carbohydrate. The amount of carbohydrate increases proportion to the amount of plum essence.In sourness, become much stronger with the increasing amount of plum essence. In the analysis of fragrance, forty kinds of volatile substances could be detected. The 1.5% plum toast contained the largest, level among all samples. Therefore, it is proved that the plum essence addition really improved the freshness, the sweetness and the sourness in toast and further promoted taste.
For antioxidant property, ethanol extracts from all samples showed the best activity. At the same concentration of 20mg/ml ethanol, the antioxidation effect of 1.5% plum toast was the greatest, and the white toast was the minium. For the part of reducing power did.
The 1.5% plum toast contained the smallest, however the white toast contained the largest number through six day’s storage period. It showed that plum essence has in preventing the growth of bacteria. For the sensory evaluation by consumers, 1% plum toast and 0.5% plum receive higher score, acceptability than those of the white toast.
To sum up, adding plum essence to toast not only improveed taste but also provided a new alternative in selecting health –conctous products.
總目錄
表次 iv
圖表 vi
摘要 vii
Abstract ix
前言 1
文獻整理 3
一、梅子的介紹
(一) 台灣有關梅子方面的研究整理 3
(二) 中國大陸有關梅子方面的研究整理 5
(三) 梅子果實之特性 6
(四) 梅之成分及功效 12
(五) 梅精之成分及功效 13
(六) 土司麵包產品之定義 18
(七) 影響土司麵包品質之因素 18
(八) 影響土司麵包老化之因子 21
(九) 防止麵包產品老化的方法 22
(十) 影響麵糰安定性及烘焙土司品質 23
材料與方法 33
一、實驗材料 33
(一) 梅精 33
(二) 試藥 33
二、實驗方法 33
(一) 梅精及土司樣品之製備 33
(二) 高筋麵粉、梅精及土司樣品之一般成分分析 33
1. 灰分之測定 33
2. 脂質之測定 33
3. 粗纖維之測定 34
4. 蛋白質之測定 34
5. 還原糖之測定 35
(三) 理化性質分析 35
1. 色差分析 35
2. 比體積分析 35
3. X射線繞射分析 35
4. 食品質地剖析 36
(四) 呈味成分分析 36
1. 核苷酸之測定 36
2. 可溶性醣類之測定 39
3. 有機酸測定 39
4. 總酚含量測定 40
(五) 香氣成分分析 40
1. 揮發性成分之萃取 40
2. 揮發性成分之儀器分析條件 40
3. 滯留指數之測定方法 40
4. 揮發性成分之定量分析 40
5. 揮發性成分之鑑定 41
(六) 抗氧化性質分析 41
1. 樣品製備與萃取率 41
2. 抗氧化力測定 41
3. 還原力測定 42
4. 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團能力測定 42
5. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定 42
(七)生菌數之測定 43
(八)消費者感官品評 43
(九)統計分析 44
結果與討論 46
一、一般成分與物理性質分析 46
(一) 高筋麵粉、梅精、梅精土司之一般成分分析 46
(二) 高筋麵粉、梅精、梅精土司之色澤分析 47
(三) 高筋麵粉、梅精之色澤分析 49
(四) 白土司、梅精土司之一般成分分析 50
(五) 白土司、梅精土司之比體積分析 50
(六) 白土司、梅精土司之色澤分析 50
(七) X射線繞射分析 60
(八) 白土司、梅精土司質地剖析 60
二、呈味分析 66
(一) 核苷酸分析 66
(二) 可溶性糖類 69
(三) 有機酸 69
(四) 總酚 73
三、白土司、不同濃度梅精土司之香氣成分分析 74
四、白土司、不同濃度梅精土司之抗氧化性質分析 91
(一) 萃取率 91
(二) 抗油脂氧化 91
(三) 還原力 96
(四) 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團能力 96
(五) 螯合亞鐵離子能力 98
五、白土司、不同濃度梅精土司之儲藏分析 100
(一)水分含量分析 100
(二)水活性 100
(三)總生菌數 102
六、消費者喜好性感官品評 107
結論 109
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