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研究生:李宗哲
研究生(外文):Tsung-Che Lee
論文名稱:以廢棄雞爪開發具抗氧化與降高血壓效果酵素水解物之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study on development of enzymatic hydrolysates withantioxidative and antihypertensive effects obtained fromwaste chicken feet
指導教授:林亮全
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:廢棄物雞爪水解抗氧化抗高血壓
外文關鍵詞:wastechicken feethydrolysisantioxidationantihypertension
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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本研究以國內雞肉加工廠之廢棄物-白肉雞與烏骨雞之廢棄雞爪作為試驗原料,分別利用Alcalase、Flavourzyme 及Protease N 三種酵素進行水解12 小時,水解期間每2 小時收集水解液並測定該期間之pH 值變化,待水解液收集完畢後,分析其可溶性蛋白質、胜肽含量,以及抗氧化分析與血管收縮素轉換酶(Angiotensin I converting enzyme, ACE) 抑制活性測定,評估酵素水解液開發具抗氧化與抗高血壓效果之可行性。此外,將具備最佳ACE 活性抑制之水解液利用超過濾裝置分為3-5 kDa、1-3 kDa 和1kDa 以下三部份,經冷凍乾燥後,再分別以10、50 及100 mg/kg 劑量進行動物試驗,評估在動物模式下抗高血壓之效果,並將該水解物進行胺基酸序列分析。
結果顯示,白肉雞與烏骨雞之雞爪分別經三種不同酵素水解後,
兩者皆以Protease N 酵素經水解12 小時之處理組具有最高之胜肽含量(白肉雞爪為42.93 mg/mL,烏骨雞爪為36.60 mg/mL),且在抗氧化分析同樣以Protease N 酵素處理組具有較佳之抗氧化活性,其中以水解2小時之水解產物在清除DPPH自由基能力與其他酵素處理組比較,顯著較佳(p < 0.05);在清除超氧陰離子試驗中,以白肉雞爪水解4小時,與烏骨雞爪水解2小時之清除效果更為顯著(p < 0.05);抑制脂質過氧化能力則為烏骨雞爪處理組較白肉雞爪處理組佳。ACE抑制活性分析中,白肉雞與烏骨雞雞爪之Protease N 酵素水解液整體而言皆具有很好的ACE抑制活性,分析其IC50 值後,白肉雞爪以Protease N 水解4小時(BP4)具有最佳抑制活性(IC50 值為2.10mg/mL),而烏骨雞爪則為Protease N 水解2小時(SP2)具有最佳抑制活性(IC50 值為1.09 mg/mL)。動物試驗方面,以1 kDa 以下之水解產物BP4 與SP2 依100 mg/kg 劑量餵食SHR 大鼠具有較佳之降血壓效果,在餵食後2 小時血壓皆顯著下降(p < 0.05),其中以餵食SP2之血壓下降達17 mmHg 為最佳。在胺基酸組成與序列分析中發現SP2中含有不少高度疏水性胺基酸Val、Ile、Leu、Met、Phe 及Cys,尤
其以Val 之含量最高,故推測SP2 具有抗氧化與降血壓效果應與其序列中大多為高度疏水性胺基酸與高含量Val 有關。
The aim of this study was to investigate the functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from waste chicken feet of broiler and silky fowl, which were gathered from local chicken processing factory. The feet of broiler and silky fowl were hydrolyzed by Alcalase, Flavourzyme, or Protease N for 12 hours. The hydrolysates were collected every 2 hours for analyzing the change of pH value, soluble protein, peptide content, antioxidative activity and ACE inhibitory activity. The hydrolysates with the highest ACE inhibitory activity were fractionated into 3-5 kDa, 1-3 kDa and below 1 kDa in molecular weight by ultrafiltration. After lyophilized, the fractions with different molecular weights were orally administered, respectively, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at various doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg for determining the decrease of immediate systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHRs. And the fraction with potent antihypertension was analyzed the amino acid sequences of peptides within by LC/MS/MS.
The result showed that hydrolysis with Protease N for 12h had the highest peptide content (broiler feet: 42.93 mg/mL; silky fowl feet: 36.60 mg/mL) in both feet of broiler and silky fowl. In antioxidative activity, the hydrolysates obtained from broiler and silky fowl feet by hydrolysis with Protease N possessed better DPPH and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity than other proteases. Moreover, the best antioxidative activity was found in a hydrolysate treated with Protease N for 4h in broiler feet (DPPH: 72.07%, SOD: 83.66%, p < 0.05), while the 2nd hour hydrolysate with the best activity (DPPH: 81.65%, SOD: 79.42%, p< 0.05) was observed in silky fowl feet. Beside, the hydrolysate from silky fowl feet revealed the higher activity on inhibition of lipid peroxidation than that of broiler feet. Also hydrolysis with Protease N had strong ACE inhibitory activity in both broiler and silky fowl feet, especially, the strongest one was found at the 4th hour hydrolysate in broiler feet (BP4, IC50 = 2.10 mg/mL) and at the 2nd hour hydrolysate in silky fowl feet (SP2, IC50 =1.09 mg/mL). After oral administration ( < 1 kDa, 100 mg/kg) in SHRs, both of BP4 and SP2 showed significantly effect on reducing immediate SBP of SHRs (p < 0.05), and the maximal reducing of 17 mmHg in SBP was obtained in SP2. Analysis of amino acid composition and sequences in peptides indicated that many hydrophobic amino acids residues were observed in SP2, including Val, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe and Cys. Especially Val was the highest quantities among them. These results suggested that potent antioxidative and antihypertensive effects in SP2 seemed to be contributed from peptides with large amounts of hydrophobic amino acids residues and Val.
壹、中文摘要I
貳、英文摘要III
參、文獻檢討1
一、雞爪之簡介1
二、健康食品之應用2
(一)健康食品簡介2
(二)健康食品管理法3
(三)健康食品現況5
三、氧化傷害與疾病7
(一)自由基與活性氧7
(二)抗氧化系統8
(三)抗氧化劑13
(四)氧化傷害相關之疾病14
四、高血壓之簡介16
(一)高血壓之定義16
(二)高血壓之分類18
(三)高血壓之概況19
(四)高血壓之治療21
五、血管收縮素轉換酶之生理作用26
(一)血管收縮素轉換酶之生化特性26
(二)腎素-血管收縮素系統28
六、蛋白質水解物之發展29
(一)蛋白質水解物之簡介29
(二)蛋白質水解物之應用29
七、具生理活性之胜肽32
(一)抗氧化胜肽32
(二)降血壓胜肽34
肆、材料與方法39
一、試驗流程40
二、實驗材料41
三、分析項目與方法41
(一)一般成分分析41
(二)胺基酸組成分析43
(三)水解液製備43
(四)水解過程變化分析44
(五)抗氧化分析45
(六)ACE 抑制活性分析48
(七)SDS-PAGE 蛋白質電泳48
(八)超過濾裝置49
(九)酵素水解物之製備與製成率49
(十)動物試驗51
(十一)統計分析52
伍、結果與討論54
一、雞爪之一般成分分析與胺基酸組成54
二、不同酵素水解過程之變化57
(一)不同酵素水解液之外觀57
(二)pH 值57
(三)可溶性蛋白質62
(四)胜肽含量65
(五)SDS-PAGE 蛋白質電泳65
三、不同酵素水解液之抗氧化分析70
(一)清除DPPH 自由基能力70
(二)清除超氧陰離子能力71
(三)還原力78
(四)螯合亞鐵離子能力78
(五)抑制脂質過氧化能力79
四、ACE 抑制活性分析.89
五、酵素水解液之產量與製成率93
六、動物試驗95
七、具ACE 抑制活性之酵素水解產物成分分析102
(一)一般成分分析102
(二)胺基酸組成102
(三)序列分析107
陸、結論110
柒、參考文獻112
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