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研究生:邱胤棋
研究生(外文):Yin-Chi Chiu
論文名稱:飼糧中添加植生劑及光合菌對產蛋雞產蛋性狀、血液性狀與免疫反應之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Phytogenics and Photosynthetic Bacteria on Laying Performance, Blood Characteristics and Immune Responses in Laying Hens
指導教授:許振忠許振忠引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:蛋品質免疫反應產蛋雞產蛋性狀光合菌植生劑
外文關鍵詞:Egg qualityImmune responseLaying hensLaying performancePhotosynthetic bacteriaPhytogenics
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本研究之目的為探討飼糧添加植生劑及光合菌對產蛋雞產蛋性狀、血液性狀與免疫反應之影響。本研究分為三個部份:試驗一與試驗二各採用2664隻白色來航蛋雞(海蘭-36)分別為42週齡與51週齡,逢機分為3個處理組,試驗一分別為對照組(基礎飼糧)、植生劑(phytogenics)處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.2%植生劑)及光合菌(Photosynthetic bacteria, PSB)處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.2%光合菌),試驗期為七週。試驗二分別為對照組、植生劑處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.4%植生劑)及光合菌處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.4%光合菌),試驗期為五週。試驗一與試驗二每處理均3重複,每重複296隻,基礎飼糧含代謝能2820 kcal/kg及粗蛋白質17%,飼料與飲水採任食,以巴達利氏雞籠飼養,4隻1籠。試驗期間於試驗一之第4、5、6和7週與試驗二之第2、3、4和5週收集蛋,測定其蛋品質,每次採樣每重複收集6顆蛋,每處理組共18顆蛋。於試驗一之第7週與試驗二之第5週時,每重複採取雞隻4隻,每處理共12隻,由翼下靜脈採血後分離血清,供測定血清相關成份性狀,其項目包括:一般成分含量、性荷爾蒙濃度、抗氧化酵素活性以及血清中IgG、IgM和IgA濃度。於試驗一之第5到7週及試驗二之第3到5週時,每日測定產蛋性狀,並於試驗結束後計算試驗期間之雞隻斃死率。試驗三採用30隻52週齡白色來航蛋雞,逢機分為3個處理組,分別為對照組、植生劑處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.4%植生劑)及光合菌處理組(基礎飼糧添加0.4%光合菌),試驗期30天。試驗飼糧含代謝能為2747 kcal/kg及粗蛋白質為18.18%,飼料與飲水採任食,籠飼飼養,5隻1籠。於第7天肌肉注射新城病疫苗0.3 mL,第14天翼下靜脈注射1%山羊紅血球1 mL,且在第14、第21和第28天翼下靜脈採血後分離血清,供測定抗體力價及第28天血清蛋白質電泳分析。第29天於雞隻肉髯注射0.1 mL植物血球凝集素(phytohemagglutinin, PHA)後,每6小時觀察乙次皮膚腫脹情形,共48小時。結果顯示,飼糧中添加0.4%植生劑或光合菌顯著地提高隻日產蛋率 (P <0.05)。添加0.4%植生劑或光合菌於蛋雞飼糧時,會比對照組有較低的血清膽固醇濃度和較高的高密度脂蛋白(HDL)膽固醇濃度之趨勢,但尚未達顯著差異。蛋黃膽固醇含量方面,在飼糧添加0.4%植生劑或光合菌的處理組顯著低於對照組 (P <0.05),添加0.2%植生劑或光合菌的處理組則差異不顯著,但有較對照組低之趨勢。在蛋殼品質方面,其強度、厚度與鈣含量均以添加植生劑或光合菌的處理組有比對照組為高之現象,而血清鈣濃度亦有相似的情形。抗氧化酵素方面,以添加植生劑或光合菌的處理組有較高之趨勢,但只有在添加0.2 %時的CAT活性和0.4 %時的GSH-Px 活性有統計上的差異 (P <0.05)。植生劑和光合菌可顯著提昇皮膚腫脹反應以及新城雞病病毒疫苗血球凝集抑制反應抗體力價 (P <0.05)。綜合以上結果顯示,本試驗所使用的植生劑或光合菌具有發展成為蛋雞飼料添加物之潛力。
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Phytogenics and Photosynthetic bacteria on laying performance, blood characteristics and immune responses in laying hens. This research was divided into three trails: In trial 1 and trial 2, 2664 laying hens (Hy-line 36), 42 and 52 weeks of age, respectively, were randomly allocated to four treatments. In trial 1, three treatments including (1) basal diet (control); (2) basal diet added with 0.2% Phytogenics and (3) basal diet added with 0.2% Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) for seven-week experimental period. In trial 2, there were three treatments including birds fed with (1) basal diet (control); (2) basal diet with addition of 0.4% Phytogenics and (3) basal diet added with 0.4% Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) for five-week experimental period. Each treatment had 3 replicates with 296 birds per replicate. Basal diet contained 2820 kcal/kg ME and 17 % CP. Four birds were housed in one battery cage. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. 6 Egg per replicate were collected to measure egg quality in 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th weeks of trail 1, and 2ed, 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks of trail 2, respectively. 4 hens per replicate were blooded intravenously to analysis serum related characteristics, including: general components, sexual hormone, antioxidant enzyme and immunoglobulin in 7th week of trail 1 and 5th week of trail 2. Laying performance was recorded from every replicate during 5th to 7th weeks of trail 1 and 3rd to 5th weeks of trail 2. Mortality rate was calculated during experimental period. In trial 3, 30 laying hens, 51 weeks of age were randomly allocated to three treatments. Birds were fed with basal diet (control), basal diet with addition of 0.4% Phytogenics, 0.4% Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), respectively, for thirty-day experimental period. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 5 birds per replicate. Basal diet contained 2747 kcal/kg ME and 18.18 % CP. Five birds were housed in one wired cage. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Birds were vaccinated intramuscularly with 0.3 mL Newcastle disease vaccine at 7th day, and injected intravenously with 1% goat red blood cell (GRBC) 1 mL at 14th day. Blood samples were taken at 14th, 21st and 28th day and serums were determined for antibody titers. Birds were injected into wattles with 0.1 mL phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 29th day, and checked skin of swelling response every six hours, during total forty eight hours. Results indicated that Dietary supplementation of Phytogenics or PSB (0.4%) increased (P <0.05) egg production. Serum cholesterol was reduced and HDL-Cholesterol was increased by supplementation of 0.4% Phytogenics or PSB compared with control, but hadn’t statistical significance. The content of yolk cholesterol was significantly lower in Phytogenics or PSB treatments than that in control treatment when diet supplementation with 0.4% (P<0.05). The egg shell strength, thickness and Ca2+ concentration were higher in Phytogenics or PSB treatments than those in control treatment. It had similar trends in serum Ca2+ concentration. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher when dietary supplementation of Phytogenics and PSB, but only CAT in 0.2% PBS and GSH-Px in 0.4% PBS were significant (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation of Phytogenics and PSB significant increase skin of swelling response and Newcastle disease virus hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) (P<0.05). Therefore, the dietary supplementation of Phytogenics or Photosynthetic bacteria may have a potential to develop as a kind of feed additives that can improve laying hen performance, egg quality and immunity.
中文摘要...................................................................... i
英文摘要...................................................................... iv
壹、前言...................................................................... 1
貳、文獻檢討 .............................................................. 4
一、植生劑之簡介........................................................ 4
二、植生劑的功能........................................................ 6
(一)抗氧化能力........................................................ 6
(二)對免疫能力的影響..............................................9
(三)對蛋黃膽固醇的影響..........................................11
三、光合作用細菌簡介.................................................13
(一)光合作用細菌獲取能量的方式............................13
(二)光合營微生物之種類及特性................................18
(三)光合作用細菌在畜產上的應用............................ 20
參、材料與方法........................................................... 23
一、試驗用植生劑與光合菌粉末簡介............................23
二、植生劑粉末的抗氧化能力分析................................26
(一)主要成分萃取方法..............................................26
(二)抗氧化能力測定.................................................29
1. 總酚含量測定法........................................................ 29
2. 總抗氧化能力測定法................................................. 30
三、試驗設計與動物飼養管理....................................... 32
(一)試驗設計與採樣處理........................................... 32
1. 試驗設計................................................................... 32
2. 試樣處理................................................................... 35
(二)測定項目與分析方法........................................... 37
1. 飼料中一般化學組成分.............................................. 37
2. 產蛋性狀.................................................................... 37
3. 血液性狀.................................................................. 38
(1) 一般成分項目.......................................................... 38
(2) 血清電解質分析....................................................... 39
(3) 血清性荷爾蒙濃度測定............................................. 40
(4) 血清抗氧化酵素測定................................................ 42
4. 蛋品質之測定..............................................................43
(1) 蛋黃..........................................................................43
(2) 蛋白......................................................................... 46
(3) 蛋殼.......................................................................... 46
5. 免疫能力之測定.......................................................... 47
(1) 血清中IgM、IgG及IgA之濃度..................................... 47
(2) 皮膚腫脹反應............................................................ 48
(3) 血球凝集反應.......................................................... 48
(4) 血球凝集抑制反應.................................................... 50
6. 統計分析................................................................... 51
肆、結果與討論............................................................... 52
Ⅰ、試驗一及試驗二...................................................... 52
一、產蛋性狀................................................................. 52
二、血液性狀.................................................................. 56
(一)一般成分............................................................... 56
(二)血清性荷爾蒙濃度.................................................. 64
(三)血清電解質........................................................... 67
三、蛋品質...................................................................... 70
(一)蛋黃及蛋白............................................................ 70
(二)蛋黃色澤................................................................ 75
(三)蛋殼....................................................................... 78
四、抗氧化能力................................................................ 83
(一)植生劑成分抗氧化測定............................................ 83
(二)血清抗氧化酵素....................................................... 85
五、免疫能力.................................................................... 89
(一)血清中IgM、IgG及IgA之濃度................................... 89
Ⅱ、試驗三.......................................................................... 93
(一)皮膚腫脹反應........................................................... 93
(二)血球凝集反應與血球凝集抑制反應.......................... 96
伍、結論........................................................................... 99
陸、參考文獻................................................................... 100
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