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研究生:周佩璇
研究生(外文):Pei-Hsuan Chou
論文名稱:性聯遺傳矮小基因與限飼對於台灣紅羽土雞生長性能與棲息行為之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Sex-linked Dwarf Gene and Feed Restriction onGrowth Performance and Activity of Red-feathered TaiwanCountry Chickens
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係陳志峰陳志峰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:性聯遺傳矮小基因限飼動物福祉
外文關鍵詞:Sex-linked dwarf genefeed restrictionanimal welfare
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台灣商業紅羽土雞因為追求生長效率而類似白肉種雞一樣肥胖而產生
繁殖障礙,為了解是否可以使用較小體型品系與之雜交或應用性聯遺傳矮小
基因(dw)來縮小體型,或者使用限飼來解決這種問題,本試驗研究這些方法
對於生長期發育與行為作息的影響。試驗之處理結構為3 基因型*2 餵飼處
理之複因子試驗,三基因型為紅羽土雞以及其與小型土雞雜交帶有正常與矮
小基因之後代,餵飼處理分別為任飼與每週絕食兩天之處理。每處理組合有
4 欄雞隻,每欄有3 隻公雞與24 隻母雞,總共24 欄,72 隻公雞與576 隻母
雞。試驗期從5 至16 週齡,檢定性狀包括生長性能、緊迫性狀與作息行為。
結果顯示,以16 週齡而言,紅羽土雞與小體型品系雜交可減少16%體重與
3%腳脛長度,矮小基因再減少25%體重與17%腳脛長度。限飼可減少紅羽
土雞與正常型雞隻10%與5%的體重,但對於矮小型雞隻體重沒有顯著影
響,而對於任何品系的腳脛長度都沒有影響。小體型與矮小基因都可改善龍
骨情況,限飼也有效果,但是矮小基因型加以限飼反而有不良後果,僅矮小
基因型雞隻之異嗜球與淋巴球比例因為限飼產生較差結果,緊張失去活力測
試結果,三種基因型雞隻的限飼組有較不害怕之程度。小體型與矮小基因型
都有較少採食行為而較多覓食、整羽與棲息行為。每一品系在限飼後隔日之
採食、覓食與飲水行為都大為增加,其他行為與棲息行為都相對減少。綜合
以上結果,性聯遺傳矮小基因及限飼處理都可以改善台灣商業紅羽土雞的動
物福祉問題。
Improving growth efficiency in the commercial Red-feathered Taiwan
Country chicken (Red TCC) had made them as fat as the White Broiler breeder
and resulted in reproduction difficulties. In order to realize whether crossing with
small size strain or using sex-linked dwarf gene to reduce body size, or using
feed restriction can resolve these problems, an experiment was conducted to test
their effects on the growth and behavioral activity in the rearing period. The
treatment structure was a 3 genotypes*2 feeding arrangements factorial
experiment. The three genotypes were Red TCC and offspring of the cross
between Red TCC and a small size heterozygous chicken with normal and dwarf
sex-linked genes. The two feeding arrangements were an ad libitum control and a
restricted feeding withdrawing feed for two single days per week. Every
treatment combination had four pens, and every pen had three males and 24
females. Totally there were 24 pens, 72 males and 576 females. The experimental
period was from 5 to 16 weeks of age and tested traits included growth
performance, stress-related traits and daytime activity. For the traits measured at
16 weeks of age, crossing with small body size chicken had resulted in 16% less
body weight and 3% shorter shank length, dwarf gene could further reduce 25%
body weight and 17% shank length. Feed restriction could reduce 10% body
weight of Red TCC and 5% body weight of crossbred normal, but did not affect
dwarf chickens. Both smaller body size and dwarf gene could improve keel
condition, restricted feeding also had some effect except for the dwarf chickens.
The result of Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio show feed restriction has bad effect
on the dwarf chickens but the result of Tonic Immobility test show feed restriction tends to decrease the level of fear of these three genotype chickens.
Both small body size and dwarf genotypes had less eating but more foraging,
preening and perching behaviors. On the day after feed restriction, every
genotype displayed much higher eating, drinking and foraging behaviors. In
conclusion, it could improve the animal welfare of Red-feathered Taiwan
Country Chickens whatever use sex-linked dwarf gene or feed restriction.
壹、中文摘要……………………………………………………………………..1
貳、前言…………………………….………………………………………….....2
參、文獻檢討……………………………..……………………………………....3
一、台灣商業紅羽土雞的現況與問題………………………………….…3
二、性聯遺傳矮小基因之應用……………………………………….……5
(一)生長曲線………….……………………………………….…….....5
(二)產蛋率.……………..……………………………………………...5
(三)產仔雞的飼料轉換率.......................................................................5
(四)死亡率..............................................................................................6
(五)異常蛋(軟殼、薄殼或雙蛋黃)之比率.............................................6
(六)受精率、後期孵化率及出雛數........................................................6
(七)其他..................................................................................................6
三、種雞限制採食量之方法………………………………………………..7
(一)每日餵飼法......................................................................................7
(二)隔日限飼法…………….………………………………………….7
(三)每週限飼兩日..................................................................................7
(四)限飼法輪替計畫..............................................................................7
(五)時間限飼……….………………………………………………….7
(六)高纖維低熱能飼量…………….………………………………….8
(七)低蛋白質飼糧……………………………………………………..8
四、台灣土雞在育成期的作息行為…………………………………….....8
(一)採食行為..........................................................................................9
(二)舒適行為………….….……………………………………………9
(三)休息行為........................................................................................10
(四)活動行為........................................................................................10
(五)棲息行為……….………….……………………………………..11
五、動物福祉狀況之指標………………………………………………...13
(一)異嗜球與淋巴球比例(Heterophil to Lymphocyte).......................14
(二)激素的反應(Hormonal responses)…………………………….…14
(三)酵素的反應(Enzyme responses)…………………………………15
(四)行為的反應(Behavioral responses)................................................15
(五)波動不對稱性(Fluctuating asymmetry, FA)……………..………16
肆、材料與方法………..……………………………………………………….17
一、試驗動物………………………………….……………...…………….17
二、試驗雞舍與飼養管理………………………………………………….18
三、試驗設計……………………………………………………………….20
四、測量項目及方法……………………………………………………….21
(一)基因型檢測……………………………………………………….21
(二)生長性狀………………………………………………………….22
1. 體重……..…………….…………………………. …………...22
2. 腳脛長度……………..…………………………..…………...22
3. 飼料採食量……………..………………………..…………...22
(三)緊迫相關性狀……..…………………….………………………23
1. 羽毛外觀評分………………………………………………...23
2. 龍骨外觀評分………………………………………………...24
3. 腳趾外觀評分………………………………………………...24
4. 白血球分類…………………………………………………...25
5. 緊張失去活力 (Tonic Immobility, TI) 測試.………......….…26
(四)行為性狀………………………………………………………….26
五、統計分析……………………………………………………………….28
(一)日間作息之試驗單位與模式…………………………………….28
(二)其他性狀分析…………………………………………………….30
伍、結果…………..…………………………………………………………….31
一、生長性狀……………………………………………………………….31
(一)體重及腳脛長度………..………………….…………………….31
(二)飼料採食量………………………………...…………………….34
二、緊迫相關性狀………………………………………………………….36
(一)羽毛評分…………………………...…………………………….36
(二)龍骨外觀評分…………………………………………...……….37
(三)腳趾彎曲程度…………………….……………………………...39
(四)白血球比例…………………………………………..…………..40
(五)緊張失去活力測試(Tonic Immobility test, 簡稱TI test)………42
三、行為性狀……………………………………………………………....44(一)給飼日的日間作息……………………………………………....44
(二)給飼日的日間使用棲架……….………………………….…….49
(三)限飼新母雞於給飼日與限飼日之日間作息比較…………..…..51
(四)限飼新母雞於給飼日與限飼日之日間使用棲架比較…...…….56
(五)夜間使用棲架………………..…………………………………..58
陸、討論…………………………………….…………………………………...62
一、性聯遺傳矮小基因對雞隻之影響…………………………………....62
(一)生長性狀…………………………………………………………62
(二)緊迫性狀………………………………………………………….62
(三)行為性狀………………………………………………………….63
二、限飼處理對雞隻之影響……………………...………………………..64
(一)生長性狀…………………………………………...……………..64
(二)緊迫性狀……………………………………………………...…..64
(三)行為性狀…...……………………………………………………..65
柒、結論…………………..……………………………………………………..66
捌、參考文獻………………….…………………………………………..…….67
玖、英文摘要…………………….……………………………………………...74
拾、附錄………………………….………………................76
表次
表1、各引子PCR條件程序…………………………………………………….22
表2、羽毛評分之標準………………………………………………………….23
表3、龍骨外觀評分之標準…………………………………………………….24
表4、腳趾彎曲程度評分之標準………………………………………………..24
表5、新母雞出生至16週齡體重(g)變方分析(均方)與平均值比較….……….32
表6、新母雞4至16週齡腳脛長度(mm)之變方分析(均方)與平均值比較….33
表7、新母雞於7至16週齡隻日採食量(g)之變方分析(均方)與平均值…….35
表8、新母雞於12週齡羽毛評分(%)分佈…………………………………...…36
表9、新母雞於16週齡的羽毛評分(%)分佈…………………………………...37
表10、新母雞於12週齡龍骨評分(%)分佈………………………..…………...38
表11、新母雞於16週齡龍骨評分(%)分佈…………………………………….38
表12、新母雞於12週齡腳趾彎曲程度(%)分佈……………………………….39
表13、新母雞於16週齡腳趾彎曲程度(%)分佈…………………………..…...40
表14、新母雞於16週齡之白血球計數之變方分析(均方)與平均值比較……41
表15、新母雞於16週齡產生緊張失去活力反應所需測試次數之分佈……...42
表16、新母雞於16週緊張失去活力持續時間(秒)之變方分析(均方)與平均值之比較……………………………………………………………..……………43
表17、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日表現不同日間作息比例 (%) 之均方與平均值比較…………………………………………………………...………...47
表17、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日表現不同日間作息比例 (%) 之均方與平
均值之比較(續)……………………………………………………………..48
表18、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日日間利用棲架比例(%)之均方與平均值比較……………………………………………………………………………..50
表19、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日表現各種日間作息之均方與平均值之比較…………………………………………….………………….54
表19、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日表現各種日間作息之均方與平均值之比較(續)…………………………………….………………….....55
表20、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日日間利用棲架比例之均方與平均值之比較………………………………………….…………………….57
表21、新母雞於5至16週齡夜間利用棲架(上層與下層)比例(%)之均方與平均值之比較……………………………………………………………..60
表22、新母雞於5至16週齡夜間棲息行為比例(%)之均方與平均值之比較………………………………………………………………………………..61
圖次
圖1、試驗配種流程與雞隻性聯遺傳矮小基因座基因型……………………..17
圖2、試驗動物…………………………………………………………………..18
圖3、雞欄內之棲架……………………………………………………………..20
圖4、新母雞5至16週齡夜間使用棲架比例(%)…………………………..…59
附錄
附表1、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日不同日間作息表現之平均值(%)…..…76
附表1、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日不同日間作息表現之平均值(%)(續)……………………………………………………………………………77
附表1、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日不同日間作息表現之平均值(%)(續)…..…..........................................................................................................78
附表1、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日不同日間作息表現之平均值(%)(續)…..…..........................................................................................................79
附表2、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日日間使用棲架之平均值 (%)…………..80
附表2、新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日日間使用棲架之平均值 (%)(續)……..81
附表3、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日不同日間作息行為之平均值 (%)………………………………………………………………………..82
附表3(續)、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日不同日間作息行為之平均值 (%)………………….……………………………………………….83
附表3(續)、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日不同日間作息行為之平均值 (%)…………………………………………….…………………….84
附表3(續)、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日不同日間作息行為之平均值 (%)……………………………….………………………………….85
附表4、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日日間利用棲架比例之平均值……………………………………………………………………………..86
附表4(續)、限飼新母雞於7至16週齡給飼日與限飼日日間利用棲架比例之平均值(%)…………………..……………………………………………….87
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