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研究生:藍怡雲
研究生(外文):Yi-Yun Lan
論文名稱:性聯遺傳矮小基因對台灣紅羽土雞種母雞產蛋性能及其子代生長性能之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Sex-linked Dwarf Gene on the Breeder’s Egg Production and their Offspring’s Growth Performance in Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係陳志峰陳志峰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:矮小基因台灣紅羽土雞
外文關鍵詞:dwarf geneRed-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken
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目前在台灣的肉雞市場中,主要可分成白色肉雞及有色肉雞兩大類,其中紅羽土雞又在有色肉雞中佔了較大的比例。而為了因應市場需求及降低生產成本,種雞場非常注重生長與屠體性狀之改良。此舉雖然有效降低了紅羽土雞的上市日齡,但卻也使得其種母雞的體重增加而造成繁殖性能的障礙。位於性染色體上的矮小基因早已被用於白肉種雞來減少體重並改善繁殖性能,本研究之目的是探討這種性聯矮小基因(dw)對紅羽種母雞繁殖性能是否有類似之影響以及運用於紅羽土雞生產之可行性。試驗方法為使用中興大學育成帶有性聯矮小基因之L2公雞與紅羽種母雞雜交,產生正常及矮小體型兩種母雞,另以紅羽母雞作為對照組。自16週齡上籠後觀測產蛋性狀至50週齡並回交紅羽公雞,評估其子代作為商用肉雞之可行性。結果顯示,利用雜交以生產較小體型的母雞的確可改善紅羽種母雞之產蛋性能,增加產蛋數。其主要原因為有較長的產蛋週期與較短的休產期,而在濾泡生長速度及產蛋間隔方面則無顯著改進。另外,雜交母雞回交紅羽公雞產生的商業土雞子代體重稍輕,公雞的雞冠也有隨體重變小的趨勢。而在屠宰率方面,除了矮小體型種母雞所產生的公雞屠宰率較低,而紅羽公雞腳部佔活體重的比例較高以外,其他並無顯著差異。
The market of meat-type chicken in Taiwan can be divided into broiler and colored chicken. Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken has the largest share in the colored chicken. In order to cope with the market demand and reduced the production cost, breeders usually emphasize mainly on the improvement of growth and carcass traits. Although it had reduced the marketing age, it also created reproductive problems due to very heavy breeder’s body weight. The sex-linked dwarf gene has been used in broiler breeders to reduce body weight and improve reproduction performance for a long time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether if the sex-linked dwarf gene can have similar effect as in the broiler breeder to improve reproductive performance in Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken and if it can be applied for commercial production. This experiment used L2 strain males of Taiwan Country Chicken carrying sex-linked dwarf gene to cross with females of Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken to produce normal and dwarf types of smaller pullets for this study. In additions, the female of Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken was used as a control group. These pullets were housed at 16 weeks of age in individual cages and their egg production traits were measured to 50 weeks of age. Hens were then backcrossed to males of Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken to produce offspring for the evaluation of the possibility for commercial production. Results showed that by crossbreeding to produce smaller pullets indeed can improve egg production in Red-feathered Taiwan Country Chicken. The main effect is through a longer clutch length and a shorter pause period but there was no significant improvement in neither follicle growth speed nor oviposition interval. Furthermore, the commercial progeny of crossbred breeder had about 7% less of body weight and tended to be accompanied with a smaller comb. For carcass traits, except the male offspring of dwarf hen were lower dressing percentage, and Red-feathered male had higher feet percentage as live body weight, no any other traits show significant difference.
壹、中文摘要……………………………………………………………………1
貳、前言…………………………………………………………………………2
參、文獻檢討……………………………………………………………………3
一、雞隻之繁殖…………………………………………………..………..…..3
(一) 母雞之生殖系統…………………………………………………..……3
1. 卵巢……………………………………………………………..………3
2. 輸卵管…………………………………………………..………………3
3. 泄殖腔……………………………………………..……………………3
(二) 蛋之形成……………………………………………..…………………5
1. 蛋黃………………………………………………………………..……5
2. 蛋白……………………………………………………………..………6
3. 蛋殼……………………………………………………………..………7
4. 氣室………………………………………………………………..……7
(三) 產蛋之機制…………………………………………………………..…7
(四) 影響雞隻產蛋之因素……………………..……………………………8
1. 體重與性成熟………………………………………………..…………8
2. 光照影響………………………………………………………..………8
3. 濾泡發育………………………………………………………………..9
4. 產蛋週期………………………………………………………………10
5. 產蛋間隔時間…………………………………………………………10
6. 雞隻生理狀況…………………………………………………………11
7. 飼養管理………………………………………………………………11
8. 遺傳因素………………………………………………………………11

二、台灣商用土雞之性能……………………………………………………11
(一)繁殖性能…………………………………….……………………….…12
(二)生長與屠體性能……………………………………………………..…12
(三)其他…………………………………………………………………..…13
三、性聯遺傳矮小基因(dw)對雞隻之影響及應用…………………………..14
(一) 受精率與孵化率………………………………………………………14
(二) 胚胎發育………………………………………………………………14
(三) 體重……………………………………………………………………14
(四) 體組成…………………………………………………………………15
(五) 飼料效率………………………………………………………………15
(六) 生理性狀………………………………………………………………15
(七) 產蛋性狀………………………………………………………………16
(八) 矮小基因於肉種雞之應用……………………………………………16
肆、材料與方法………………………………………………………………..18
一、試驗一……………………………………………………………………..18
(一) 試驗雞隻………………………………………………………………18
(二) 飼養管理………………………………………………………………20
(三) 測定項目………………………………………………………………20
二、試驗二……………………………………………………………………..21
(一) 試驗雞隻………………………………………………………………21
(二) 飼養管理………………………………………………………………21
(三) 測定項目………………………………………………………………21
三、試驗三……………………………………………………………………..23
(一) 試驗雞隻………………………………………………………………23
(二) 飼養管理………………………………………………………………23
(三) 測定項目………………………………………………………………24
四、統計分析…………………………………………………………………..25
伍、結果與討論………………………………………………………………..26
一、 試驗一………………………………………………………………..…26
(一) 生長性狀………………………………………………………………27
(二) 產蛋期死亡率…………………………………………………………29
(三) 產蛋性狀………………………………………………………………30
二、試驗二……………………………………………………………………35
(一) 產蛋性狀………………………………………………………………35
(二) 產蛋間隔時間…………………………………………………………40
(三) 濾泡生長………………………………………………………………42
(四) 蛋重與體重……………………………………………………………45
三、試驗三……………………………………………………………………48
(一) 生長性狀………………………………………………………………48
(二) 屠體性狀………………………………………………………………53
(三) 飼料效率………………………………………………………………58
陸、結論………………………………………………………………………..60
柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………………………..61
捌、英文摘要…………………………………………………………………..71
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