跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.226.244.254) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 23:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳韋如
研究生(外文):Wei-Ru Chen
論文名稱:遺傳與社會環境對台灣土雞棲息行為的影響
論文名稱(外文):A study on the effects of genetic and social environment on the perching behavior of Taiwan Country Chicken
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:遺傳棲息行為土雞
外文關鍵詞:GeneticsPerchTaiwan Country Chicken
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:132
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣土雞具有肉質鮮美的特色,廣受國人喜愛。但其飼養時間長,一般接近性成熟才出售。接近性成熟的雄雞有強烈的攻擊與性行為,不但會造成雞群的社會緊迫、不利動物福祉,也造成農民損失。為改善雞隻攻擊行為問題,台灣地區大多採用分飼以提高雞群整齊度,但為了迎合市場的需求,提早性成熟以增加土雞飼養之經濟效益,雌雄合飼可能也有其優勢。此外,雞舍內提供棲架可使雞隻有較多休息時間、改進福祉也使雞隻有較好的羽毛外觀,提高經濟效益。
本試驗為瞭解遺傳及不同社會環境對台灣土雞棲息行為的影響,使用同源但分別長期選拔產蛋與產肉性能的台灣土雞L2與B品系,且依親代使用棲架高低情形,再選育出L2H與L2L兩品系。並分為雌雄合飼、分飼三種社會環境。試驗期間在雞隻5至16週齡,進行日間作息及棲息之行為觀察;於試驗結束時進行Tonic immobility(TI)測試以評估雞隻害怕程度。期能透過遺傳上及飼養管理上的應用來提高台灣土雞對於棲架的使用頻率,解決行為的問題。
試驗結果發現,經過選型配種後,其後代L2H與L2L上棲架頻率有顯著差異,以親子迴歸分析估計遺傳率為0.400±0.126,顯示棲息行為遺傳率高而容易選拔改變。從長期選拔產肉(B)與選拔產蛋(L2)的行為比較,B品系上棲架頻率較少,但測試害怕的TI檢定發現B品系的TI持續時間較短,顯然改進產肉能力也會使雞隻較不活躍且較不緊張。社會環境的比較發現全部都是雄雞的雞舍會有較多棲息頻率,而全部為雌雞的雞舍較少使用棲架,顯示棲息行為主要是為了躲避雄雞的攻擊性。
“Country” chicken is the most important meat-type chicken in Taiwan, but its production efficiency is low. When males approach sexual maturity, they have more aggressive and sexual behavior. Excessive attacks will increase social-stress which results in lower welfare and increases economical loss. In order to reduce these behavior problems, farmers in Taiwan usually rear chickens in sex-separately social environments. But chicken reared in sex-intermingled pens seems to enhance sexual maturity and improve production efficiency. Besides, providing perches can let chickens have more resting time, improve welfare, make them have better feather covering, and increase economic efficiency.
To know the effect of long term selection and different social environment on the behavior of Taiwan Country Chicken during rearing period, chickens used in this study were long time selected L2 strain of Taiwan Country Chicken for egg production, which were further selected based on high and low utilization of perch to reproduce L2H and L2L groups of chicken, to compare with a long term selected B strain for meat production. They were raised in sex-intermingled and sex-separately social environments. The experiment period was from 5 to 16 weeks of age when daytime activity and perching behavior were observed. At the end of the experiment, tonic immobility (TI) test were carried out to evaluate the fear of birds.
Results revealed that only one generation of selection had made a significant difference of perching frequency between L2H and L2L. Its heritability estimated by parent-offspring regression was 0.400±0.126. Comparison between B and L2 strains found that B strain had significantly less perching frequency and shorter duration of TI response. Selection for meat apparently had made chicken less active and less nervous. Comparisons of different social environments revealed that all male pens had the highest perching frequency while those with only females had very low perching frequency. It implied that perching was mainly for avoiding male’s aggression.
壹、中文摘要 1
貳、英文摘要 2
參、前言 4
肆、文獻檢討 6
一、行為的重要性 6
(一)動物的行為 6
(二)日間作息 7
(三)動物的害怕反應與緊迫指標 10
二、攻擊行為及性行為的問題 13
(一)台灣土雞之攻擊行為 13
(二)台灣土雞之性行為 14
(三)行為衍生問題與解決辦法 14
三、雌雄分合飼制度於飼養管理上的應用 15
(一)台灣地區飼養管理概況 15
(二)飼養制度之應用 15
四、棲息行為的定義 16
(一)影響棲架使用的因素 16
(二)使用棲架之益處 18
五、中興大學育成土雞品系概況 20
(一)背景 20
(二)L2與B品系之選拔 21
伍、材料與方法 22
一、試驗動物 22
二、試驗處理 23
三、飼養管理 25
四、測量經濟性狀 26
(一)體重及飼料採食量 26
(二)雄雞冠面積 26
五、行為觀察 27
(一)日間作息 27
(二)夜間棲息 29
六、外觀評分 30
(一)羽毛評分 30
(二)龍骨外觀評分 31
(三)腳爪外觀評分 31
七、測量雞腳抓握距離 31
八、緊張失去活力(Tonic Immobility, TI)評分 31
九、白血球計數 32
十、統計分析 33
一、經濟性狀 36
(1)體重及飼料採食量 36
(2)雄雞冠面積 37
(3)死亡率 37
二、行為觀察 41
(1)日間作息 41
(2)日間利用棲架情形 44
(3)夜間棲息 46
(4)棲息行為遺傳率 47
三、外觀評分 56
(1)羽毛評分 56
(2)龍骨外觀 57
(3)腳爪外觀 60
(4)雞腳抓握距離 60
四、害怕反應與緊迫指標 65
(1)緊張失去活力(Tonic Immobility, TI)評分 65
(2)白血球計數 68
柒、結論 73
捌、參考文獻 75
中央氣象局。2007。氣象資訊服務網。網址:http://www.cwb.gov.tw/
王效天。2001。手術去勢閹雞和雞胚時期注射雌二醇對台灣土雞公雞生長後期至性成熟之後日間作息,鬥爭行為,生長成績,屠體性狀及官能品評之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
甘明宗。1986。公母分飼、合飼及棲木對土雞日間作息行為、鬥爭行為、性行為及經濟性狀之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
白火城、李淵百。1985。公雞血清睪固酮濃度與其日間作息情形、屠體性狀及肌肉品質品評結果之關係。中畜會誌。14(3-4): 91-98。
行政院農業委員會。2007。畜牧統計。網址:http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?catid=12495。
李淵百。1985。台灣商用土雞重要性狀的遺傳率與遺傳相關:2、睪丸、腹脂、攻擊性、社會地位與雞肉品質。中畜會誌。14(3-4): 79-89。
李淵百、甘明宗、陳振台。1986。土雞攻擊行為的發展與社會地位的決定。中畜會誌。15(3-4): 25-37。
李淵百、黃暉煌。1988。台灣土雞育種。中畜會誌。17(3-4): 29-47。
李淵百。1992。台灣的土雞。國立中興大學。台中。
李淵百、陳志峰。1998。中興大學土雞品系推廣手冊。國立中興大學。台中。
李淵百。2004。動物行為學。國立中興大學教務處。台中。
李淵百。2006。動物行為學。國立中興大學教務處。台中。
周易蕾。2006。棲架高度與棲架粗細對於台灣土雞育成期行為及生長性狀之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
林興誠。2002。台灣黑羽土雞在水簾式棲架雞舍生長與行為觀察之研究。碩士論文。屏東科技大學。
姜中鳳。1994。不同公母比例飼養法、棲架及飼桶添置與飼糧添加色氨酸,對台灣土雞日間作息、鬥爭及性行為與重要經濟性狀之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
陳亭蓉。1998。北京油雞、絲羽烏骨雞、台灣地區商用烏骨雞與土雞育成期生長與行為性狀之比較。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
曾秋隆。2005。曾氏獸醫臨床病理學。75-80頁。偉明圖書有限公司。台北市。
曾秋隆。2007。曾氏家禽臨床血液學。偉明圖書有限公司。台北市。
黃智鈴。2002。籠飼公雞對精液採集的行為反應:遺傳率、品種差異性與育成期的行為反應。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
黃誠鑑。1985。台灣商用土雞重要數量經濟性狀遺傳率與遺傳相關。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
黃誠鑑、李淵百、黃暉煌。1985。台灣商用土雞重要性狀的遺傳率與遺傳相關:1、體重、雞冠與肉髯。中畜會誌。14(3-4): 69-78。
葉力子。1990。剪爪、棲架及公母分、合飼對土雞趨近性成熟階段之日間作息、鬥爭行為、性行為及經濟性狀之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
賴嘉宏。2006。長期選拔對台灣土雞重與屠體部位比例之影響。中畜會誌。35(Suppl.): 122。
戴佩珊。2004。台灣土雞產蛋性狀遺傳變異之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
顏正儒。2004。台灣商用土雞、選育土雞與單冠白色來亨雞在濾泡生長速度與產蛋間隔時間之比較。碩士論文。國立中興大學。
Appleby, M. C., B. O. Hughes, M. McDonald, and L. S. Cordiner. 1998. Factor affecting the use of perches in cages by laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 39: 186-190.
Blokhuis, H. J. 1984. Rest in poultry. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 12: 289-303.
Brake, J. 1987. Influence of presence of perches during rearing on incidence of floor laying in broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 66: 1587-1589.
Brake, J., T. P. Keeley, and R. B. Jones. 1994. Effect of age and presence of perches during rearing on tonic immobility fear reactions of broiler breeder pullets. Poult. Sci. 73: 1470-1474.
Campo J. L., M. G. Gil, I. Munoz, and M. Alonso. 2000. Relation between bilateral asymmetry and tonic immobility duration or heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in five breeds of chickens. Poult. Sci. 79: 453-459.
Campo J. L., and S. G. Davila. 2002. Effect of photoperiod on heterophil to lymphocyte ratio and tonic immobility duration of chickens. Poult. Sci. 81: 1637-1639.
Campo, J. L., M. G. Gil, S. G. Davila, and I. Munoz. 2005. Influence of perches and footpad dermatitis on tonic immobility and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio of chickens. Poult. Sci. 84: 1004-1009.
Craig, J. V., S. K. Kujiyat, and A. D. Dayton. 1984. Tonic immobility responses of white leghorn hens affected by induction techniques and genetic stock differences. Poult. Sci. 63: 1-10.
Dawson, J. S., and P. B. Siegel. 1967. Behavior patterns of chickens to ten weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 46: 615-622.
Duncan, I. J. H., and B. O. Hughes. 1975. Feeding activity and egg formation in hens lit continuously. Br. Poult. Sci. 16: 145-155.
FAWC, 1992. Report on the Welfare of Broiler Chickens. IA Page Street, London SW1P 4PQ.
Fischer, G. J. 1975. The behavior of chickens, in “The Behavior of Domestic Animal, pp. 454-489”. Third Edition. Baillere Tindall. London.
Fraser, A. F. 1980. Farm Animal Behaviour, 2nded. Baillere Tindall. London.
Gallup, G. G. Jr. 1979. Tonic immobility as a measure of fear in domestic fowl. Anim. Behav. 27: 316-317.
Grigor, P. N., B. O. Hughes, and M. C. Appleby. 1995. Effects of regular handling and exposure to an outside area on subsequent fearfulness and dispersal in domestic hens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 44: 47-55.
Guhl, A. M. 1953. Social behavior of domestic fowl. Kans. Agric.Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull.73.
Heckert, R. A., I. Estevez, E. Russek-Cohen, and R. Pettit-Riley. 2002. Effects of density and perch availability on the immune status of broilers. Poult. Sci. 81: 451-457.
Heikkila M., A. Wichman, S. Gunnarsson, and A. Valros. 2006. Development of perching behaviour in chicks reared in enriched environment. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 99: 145-156.
Huang, Z. L., and Y. P. Lee. 2005. Aggressiveness influences behavioral patterns of local chickens. Journal of Poult. Sci., 42: 30-38.
Hughes, B. O., and H. A. Elson. 1977. The use of perches by broilers in floor pens. Br. Poult. Sci. 18: 715-722.
Jones, R. B., and J. M. Faure. 1981. Tonic immobility (“righting time”)in laying hens housed in cage and pens. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 7: 369-372.
Jones, R. B. 1985a. Fear responses of individually-caged laying hens as a function of cage level and aisle. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 14: 63-74.
Jones, R. B. 1985b. Fearfulness of hens caged individually or in groups in different tiers of a battery and the effects of translocation between tiers. Br. Poult. Sci. 26: 399-408.
Jones, R. B. 1986a . Social factors affecting tonic immobility in chicks. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 16: 96-97.
Jones, R. B. 1986b. The tonic immobility reaction of the domestic fowl: a review. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 42: 82-96.
Jones, R. B., and D. Waddington. 1992. Modification of fear in domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, via regular handling and early environmental enrichment. Anim. Behav. 43: 1021-1033.
Jones, R. B. 1992. The nature of handling immediately prior to test affects tonic immobility fear reactions in laying hens and broilers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 34: 247-254.
Jones, R. B., H. J. Blokhuis, and G. Beuving. 1995. Open-field and tonic immobility responses in domestic chicks of two genetic lines differing in their propensity to feather peck. Br. Poult. Sci. 36(4): 525-30.
Kujiyat, S. K., and J. V. Craig. 1983. Duration of tonic immobility affected by housing environment in white leghorn. Poult. Sci. 62: 2280-2282.
Lee, Y. P., and T. L. Chen. 2007. Daytime behavioural patterns of slow growing chicken in deep-litter pens with perches. Br. Poult. Sci. 48: 113-120.
Lee, Y. P., C. T. Chen, Y. K. Fan, and C. C. Hwang. 1985. Daily activities of the three varieties of meat-type chickens in Taiwan and their influences on carcass traits. Proc. 3rd AAAP Anim. Sci. Cong. Vol(1): 257-259.
LeVan, N. J., I. Estevez, and W. R. Stricklin. 2000. Use of horizontal and angled perches by broiler chickens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 65: 349-365.
Mankovich, N. J., and E. M. Bank. 1982. An analysis of social orientation and the use of space in a flock of domestic fowl. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 9: 177-193.
Martin, P., and P. Bateson. 1993. MEASURE BEHAVIOUR: An introductory guide. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Martrenchar, A., D. Huonnic, J. P. Cotte, E. Boilletot, and J. P. Morisse. 2000. Influence of stocking density, artificial duskand group size on the perching behaviour of broilers. Br. Poult.Sci. 41: 125-130.
Mashaly, M. M., G. L. Hendricks, M. A. Kalama, A. E. Gehad, A. O. Abbas, and P. H. Patterson. 2004. Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens. Poult. Sci. 83: 889-894.
Masic, B., D. G. M. Wood-Gush, I. J. H. Duncan, C. McCorquodale, and C. J. Savory. 1974. A comparison of the feeding behaviour of young broiler and layer males. Br. Poult. Sci. 15: 499-505.
McFarlane, J. M., and S. E. Curtis. 1989. Multiple concurrent stressors in chicks. 3. Effect on plasma corticosterone and the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio. Poult. Sci. 68:522-527.
Miner, M. L., and R. A. Smart. 1975. Causes of enlarged sternal bursas (breast blisters). Avian Dis.19: 246-256.
Moinard, C., J. P. Morisse, and J. M.Faure. 1998. Effect of cage area, cage height and perches on feather condition, bone breakage and mortality of laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 39: 198-202.
Newberry, R. C. 1995. Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 44: 229–243.
Newberry, R. C., I. Estevez, and L. J. Keeling. 2001. Group size and perching behavior in young domestic fowl. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73: 117–129.
Nielsen, B. L. 2004. Breast blisters in groups of slow-growing broilers in relation to strain and the availability and use of perches. Br. Poult. Sci. 45(3):306-315.
Pettit-Riley, R., and I. Estevez. 2001. Effects of density on perching behavior of broiler chickens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 71: 127–140.
Riedstra, B., and Ton G. G. Groothuis. 2002. Early feather pecking as a form of social exploration:The effect of group stability on the feather pecking and tonic immobility in domestic chicks. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 77: 127-138.
Rollin B. E. 1995. Farm Animal Welfare: Social, Bioethical, and Research Issues. Iowa State University Press.
SAS, 1998. User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.
Savory, C. J. 1975. A growth study of broiler and layer chicks reared in single-strain and mixed-strain groups. Br. Poult. Sci. 16: 315-318.
Savory, L. J. 1980. Diurnal feeding patterns in domestic fowls: a review. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 6: 71-82.
Scott, J. P. 1972. Animal Behavior, Second Edition, Revised. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago & London.
Siegel, P. B., W. L. Beane, and C. Y. Kramer, 1962. The measurement of feeding activity in chickens to 8 weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 41: 1419-1422.
Siegel, P. B. 1984. The role of behaviour in poultry production: a review of research. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 11: 299-316.
Spedding, C. 2000. Animal Welfare. Earthscan Pub. Ltd., Sterling, Virginia, USA.
Wichman A., M. Heikkilaぴ, A. Valros, B. Forkman, and L. J. Keeling. 2007. Perching behaviour in chickens and its relation to spatial ability. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 105: 165–179.
Wood-gush, D. G. M., and I. J. H. Duncan. 1976. Some behavioural observations on domestic fowl in the wild. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 2: 255-260.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊