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研究生:賴嘉宏
研究生(外文):Jia-Hung Lai
論文名稱:長期選拔產肉和產蛋性狀對土雞生長和肉質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of long-term selections for meat and egg production on the growth and meat quality of country chicken
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係陳志峰陳志峰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:土雞肉質選拔
外文關鍵詞:country chickenmeat qualityselection
相關次數:
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雞隻生長、屠體等性狀受到品種、選拔、飼養管理等因子之影響。體重、生長速率與產肉量等性狀具有很高的遺傳率,因此這類性狀的選拔有很大的改進效率。許多研究發現,白肉雞在高度選拔下,伴隨許多負面影響的產生,例如猝死症(sudden death syndrome)、腹水症(ascites)、腿部疾病、繁殖障礙與免疫能力低下等問題。另外在肉質方面的研究指出,高度選拔胸肉產量會造成其胸肉顏色蒼白與較高生肉滲水失重等問題。本試驗之目的在探討本校經長期選拔之土雞品系,此四個品系在屠體性狀和肉質等方面之差異。試驗材料為中興大學長期選育的土雞品系,包括公系B與S品系和母系D與L2品系,此四個品系具有相同的遺傳背景,自1983年起開始以兩大方向進行遺傳選拔,公系著重胸肉和腿肉飽滿和早熟性,母系則兼顧早熟性和達40週齡時之總產蛋數,持續選拔至今。結果顯示,自6週齡開始品系間活體重即有顯著差異;早熟性的選拔使各品系的性成熟提早,B品系有最大的成熟體重,D品系最輕。比較體型相似的L2和S品系母雞之生長性能參數,L2品系母雞在性成熟速率方面略高於S品系母雞,顯示母系針對產蛋數進行選拔可能間接使初產提早。在屠體性狀方面,公雞有較大的腿部比例,尤以公系較高;母雞有較大胸部比例和胸肉產率,品系間以母系較高,尤其以D品系表現最好。母雞腹脂的比例顯著較公雞高,對屠宰率有負面影響,16週齡時品系間無顯著差異,但在20週齡時,體型較小的D和S品系公雞有較高的趨勢。胸肉色澤方面,a*值以公雞較高,b*值以母雞較高,表示公雞胸肉偏紅,母雞偏黃;B品系有較高的L*和a*值,但沒有類似蒼白滲水的情況。母雞腿肉和胸肉的滲水失重與蒸煮失重皆高於公雞,B品系胸肉和腿肉的滲水失重和蒸煮失重有較低的趨勢。母系母雞的胸肉有較高之滲水失重。胸肉和腿肉之截切值皆以母系較高,但從彈性、凝集性和咀嚼方面的數值來看,其肉質雖然不易咬斷卻富口感,適合傳統之烹調方式。由肌纖維切片的觀察中發現,16至20週齡期間,公雞肌纖維直徑有較大的增加,且顯著大於母雞,尤其B品系公雞肌纖維直徑增長程度最大。根據本試驗的各項性狀結果顯示,每個品系或性別在各方面皆有其特點,例如D品系雖然屠宰率較低,但胸肉產量性能極佳,B品系在屠宰率和腿部比例都有不錯的表現。因此,經過長期選育之土雞品系,各品系除了有顯著之遺傳改進外,試驗結果亦顯示,不同選拔方向對雞隻生長、屠體與肉質等性狀有顯著影響,選拔產蛋性狀的品系雞隻有較大的胸部比例,其胸肉和腿肉截切值皆顯著高於選拔產肉性狀之品系。此外,選拔產蛋性狀之品系之性成熟速率亦有較高的趨勢。
Growth and carcass performance of chicken were affected by strains, selection, feeding management, and so on. Heritability of traits like growth rate and meat production are high. Selection is a useful method to improve such traits. Many studies reported that, broiler selections for growth rate result a lot of negative effects such as ‘sudden death syndrome’, ‘ascites’, and poor foot activity, immunity, and reproduction. On the other hand, selection for higher breast meat yield also might result in paler color meat and meat with higher drip loss. The NCHU country chicken used in this experiment including sire and dam lines, B and S strains; L2 and D strains respectively. The four strains with the same genetic background were selected for two destinations since 1983 until now. Sire line was focused on plenty breast and leg meat and early-maturing. Dam line was focused on early-maturing and total egg production at 40 wks of age. The purpose of this study was to test there was any significant different on the growth, carcass, and meat quality among the four strains though long-term selection. The result showed that, there was a significant different on the live body weight since 6 wks of age to the end of the experiment period. B strain showed to have the heaviest mature body weight. Besides, D strain showed to have the lightest mature body weight. Selection for the early-maturing made chicken reach maturity early. To compare the growth parameter of L2 and S strains with similar body weight, it showed that selection for egg production might result in the dam lines pullets earlier to maturity indirectly. For the carcass traits, male chicken particularly male chicken in the sire lines showed a higher percentage of leg. Female chicken particularly the D strain female chicken in the Dam lines showed the higher percentages of breast and breast meat yield. The percentage of abdominal fat was higher in female chickens, and resulted in some negative effect on the dressing percentage. There was no significant different among the four strains on the percentage of abdominal fat at 16 weeks of age. Both D and S strains were the small size chicken strains, there was a trend that D and S strains showed higher percentage of abdominal fat at 20 weeks of age. In the aspect of the color of breast meat, a* values were higher on male chicken, b* values were higher on female chicken. B strain selected for the largest body weight showed the higher L* value and lower a* value. But there was no breast meat of strains showed the PSE-like meat. Both drip loss and cooking loss of breast and leg meat were higher in female chicken than male chicken. There was a trend that B strain chicken showed lower drip loss and cooking loss. Breast meat of female chicken in the dam lines showed a higher drip loss. The shear values of the breast and leg meat were higher in the dam lines. But the values of springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness show that such meats were hard to cut off, but rich mouth feel for eating and appropriating to traditional cooking methods. The observation of cross-section of muscle fiber showed male chicken had significant larger development on the fiber diameter than female chicken, especial male chicken from B strain had largest development. Consequently, each line or sex had some particular, such as the D line had poorer dressing percentage but with the highest breast meat yield. B line shows higher dressing percentage and the percentage of leg. Therefore, the four country chicken strains through long-term selection by different criterion were improved genetically. The results also showed that growth, carcass, and meat quality were affected significantly by different selections. Chicken selected for egg production showed higher maturation rate, breast percentage, and shear values of breast and leg meat than chicken selected for meat production.
目錄

壹、中文摘要 i
貳、英文摘要 iii
參、文獻檢討 1
一、台灣肉用雞概況 1
(一)白色肉用雞 2
(二)有色肉雞 3
(三)有色肉雞與白肉雞的差異 4
二、影響雞隻生長的因素 5
(一)品種與選拔 5
(二)性別 6
(三)配種制度 7
(四)飼料和飼養管理 7
三、影響屠體性狀的因素 8
(一)品系與選拔 9
(二)性別 9
(三)飼糧營養 10
四、影響肉質性狀的因素 11
(一)肉質定義 11
1.外觀 11
2.質地 12
3.風味 12
4.多汁性 12
(二)肉質性狀 12
1.色澤 12
2.pH值 13
3.保水力測定 14
4.物理特性 14
(三)肌肉結構 17
1.肌纖維 18
2.結締組織 20
3.脂肪組織 21
(四)品系和選拔 21
(五)性別 22
(六)年齡 23
(七)其他因素 24
1.肥育 24
2.屠前緊迫和屠後肌肉轉變成食用肉之化學反應 24
3.僵直狀態 25
肆、材料與方法 28
一、試驗動物 28
二、遺傳背景 28
(一)B品系的沿革 29
(二)S品系的沿革 29
(三)D品系的沿革 29
(四)L2品系的沿革 29
三、選育流程 30
四、飼養管理 31
五、防疫計畫 31
六、測量性狀 34
(一)生長性狀 34
1.體重 34
2.雞冠面積 34
3.生長性能參數 34
(二)屠體性狀 35
(三)肉質性狀 39
1. pH值 39
2.色澤 39
3.滲水失重 39
4.蒸煮失重 40
5.物性試驗 40
(四)肌纖維性狀 42
七、統計分析 43
伍、結果與討論 45
一、生長性狀分析 45
(一)體重 45
(二)生長性能參數 45
(三)雞冠面積 51
二、屠體性狀分析 53
(一)腳脛和胸型 53
(二)屠宰率 56
(三)屠體各部位分切重量與其佔屠體比例 58
(四)胸肉產率 63
(五)內臟和腹脂重與其佔活體比例 65
(六)睪丸和卵巢重與其佔活體比例 69
三、肉質性狀分析 71
(一)色澤變化 71
(二) pH值變化 81
(三)滲水失重 86
(四)蒸煮失重 86
(五)物理性狀測定 91
1.截切值 91
2.組織物性分析 93
(1)硬度 93
(2)彈性 93
(3)凝集性 93
(4)咀嚼性 94
四、肌纖維切片分析 99
陸、結論 104
柒、參考文獻 105

表次
表1、肌纖維類型特性 19
表2、飼糧組成(0~8週齡) 32
表3、飼糧組成(9~20週齡) 33
表4、各品系雞隻6至20週齡之活體重 47
表5、各品系雞隻生長性能參數 48
表6、各品系公雞10週齡雞冠測量變方分析和最小平方平均值 52
表7、各品系和性別16與20週齡腳脛和胸部性狀之變方分析 54
表8、各品系和性別16與20週齡腳脛和胸部性狀之最小平方平均值 55
表9、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠宰重和屠宰率之變方分析和最小平方平均值 57
表10、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠體各部位重和佔屠體比例之變方分析 60
表11、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠體各部位重之最小平方平均值 61
表12、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠體各部位佔屠體比例之最小平方平均值 62
表13、各品系和性別16和20週齡胸肉重和胸部著肉率之變方分析和最小平方平均值 64
表14、各品系和性別16和20週齡內臟和腹脂重和佔活體比例之變方分析 67
表15、各品系和性別16和20週齡內臟和腹脂重和佔活體比例之最小平方平均值 68
表16、各品系16和20週齡卵巢和睪丸重與其佔活體比例之變方分析和最小平方平均值 70
表17、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後0至3天胸肉色澤之變方分析 73
表18、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後0至3天胸肉色澤(L*)之最小平方平均值 74
表19、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後0至3天胸肉色澤(a*)之最小平方平均值 75
表20、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後0至3天胸肉色澤(b*)之最小平方平均值 76
表21、各品系和性別16和20週齡胸肉和腿肉屠後20分鐘至48小時pH值變化之變方分析 82
表22、各品系和性別16和20週齡胸肉和腿肉屠後20分鐘至48小時pH值變化之最小平方平均值 83
表23、各品系和性別16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉於屠後1至3天滲水失重之變方分析和最小平方平均值 88
表24、各品系和性別16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉於屠後1至3天滲水失重之最小平方平均值 89
表25、各品系和性別16和20週齡胸肉與腿肉蒸煮失重之變方分析和最小平方平均值 90
表26、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉之截切值變方分析和最小平方平均值 92
表27、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉組織物性(硬度)之變方分析和最小平方平均值 95
表28、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉組織物性(彈性)之變方分析和最小平方平均值 96
表29、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉組織物性(凝集性)之變方分析和最小平方平均值 97
表30、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡胸肉與腿肉組織物性(咀嚼性)之變方分析和最小平方平均值 98
表31、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡腓腸肌肌纖維切片測量之變方分析 102
表32、各性別和品系16週齡和20週齡腓腸肌肌纖維切片測量之最小平方平均值 103

圖次
圖1、雞隻胸肉之組織物性分析 16
圖2、雞隻胸肉之截切值測定 16
圖3、雞隻腿部緋腸肌之肌肉橫切面 17
圖4、肌肉轉變成生肉的pH值變化 25
圖5、於屠後不同時間點去骨之肉品截切值變化 27
圖6、興大育成品系土雞之建立與世代數 30
圖7、胸型測量示意圖 36
圖8、胸肉和腿肉物性測定之採樣部位 41
圖9、截切值測定(左)和組織物性測定(右)所使用之探頭 41
圖10、肌纖維影像分析 42
圖11、各品系公雞0至20週齡Gompertz 生長曲線 49
圖12、各品系母雞0至20週齡Gompertz 生長曲線 50
圖13、各品系母雞16週齡胸肉色澤變化 77
圖14、各品系公雞16週齡胸肉色澤變化 78
圖15、各品系母雞20週齡胸肉色澤變化 79
圖16、各品系公雞20週齡胸肉色澤變化 80
圖17、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後胸肉pH值變化 84
圖18、各品系和性別16和20週齡屠後腿肉pH值變化 85
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