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研究生:馬文良
研究生(外文):Wen-Liang Ma
論文名稱:裸頸基因對雞屠體與肉品質性狀的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Naked Neck Gene on Carcass and Meat Quality Traits of Chicken
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係陳志峰陳志峰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:裸頸基因屠體肉品質性狀
外文關鍵詞:Naked neck genecarcassmeat quality trait
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本研究目的是為了解裸頸基因對雞屠體與肉質性狀之影響而比較雜合子裸頸雞與其正常羽全同胞。
試驗動物以國立中興大學動物科學系所育成之台灣土雞L2品系(na/na無裸頸基因之正常羽純合子)作為親代母系,法國國家農業研究院(INRA)育成之裸頸公雞(Na/Na)和L2母雞(na/na)雜交產生帶有裸頸基因雜合子(Na/na)之子代公雞為親代父系,兩者雜交產生雜合子裸頸雞(Na/na)及正常羽雞(na/na)全同胞作為試驗雞隻,目的在比較裸頸基因對屠體與肉品質性狀之影響。主要研究結果如下:
其一,就屠體性狀試驗結果顯示,裸頸基因雜合子相較於正常羽雞,羽毛佔活體重比例平均減少約16%(P<0.01),頭頸部比例減少約8.5%(P<0.05),砂囊比例增加約5.2%(P<0.05),腿重比例則有較高之趨勢(P <0.10);此外,裸頸基因雜合子母雞背部比例較大(P<0.05)而肝臟比例較小(P<0.05)。
其二,物理性狀試驗結果顯示,裸頸基因雜合子和正常羽鷄屠後24小時之胸肉L*、a*、b*值、肉汁流失率、剪斷值,與小胸肌外觀面積比例皆無顯著差異,僅發現裸頸基因雜合子公雞之腿肉蒸煮失重較多。
其三,化學性狀試驗結果顯示,在胸、腿肉部分裸頸雞與正常羽雞pH值並無顯著差異;測量胸肉部分之水分、粗脂肪及粗蛋白亦無顯著差異;而腿肉部分裸頸雞之粗脂肪極顯著低於正常羽雞;蛋白質方面裸頸雞極顯著高於正常羽雞。
綜合本實驗結果而言,裸頸雞能降低經濟價值較低的頭頸部與羽毛重,並增加經濟價值較高的腿重,相當符合國內市場需求;且裸頸雞腿肉脂肪較低,符合現代人飲食健康之低熱量訴求,再者,增加腿肉蛋白質會增加裸頸雞的營養性。因此,屠體性狀及化學性狀的結果顯示裸頸雞的肉質較佳。
The thesis attempted to figure out the effect of naked neck gene on chicken’s carcass and meat quality traits by comparing heterozygous naked neck chicken with his normal feather full-sib.
The dam(na/na, normal feather homozygous without Na gene) was the Taiwan Country chicken L2 strain bred by the Animal Science Department in National Chung-Hsing University. The sire was the heterozygous offspring (Na/na) of the cross between the naked neck cock(bred by INRA) and the normal hen (L2). Their heterozygous(Na/na) and normal full-sib(na/na) offspring were used to compare carcass and meat quality traits. Followings are the research results:
Firstly, the carcass trial results revealed: Compared the heterozygous naked neck chicken with the normal feather one, the feather as percentage of live weight was significantly lower about 16% on average (P<0.01), and the headneck percentage was significantly lower about 8.5%(P<0.05), and the gizzard percentage was significantly higher about 5.2%(P<0.05), and the leg percentage tended to be higher(P<0.1). Furthermore, the back percentage of the heterozygous naked neck hens was higher(P<0.05) and the liver percentage was lower(P<0.05) than the normal feather hens.
Secondly, the physical traits trial revealed no difference in the drip loss, texture profile analysis, and the Pectoralis minor area percentage, but only found the leg cooking loss on heterozygous male chicken was significantly higher (P<0.05).
Thirdly, chemical trial showed no significant difference was found for any of the breast moisture, breast crude fat or breast crude protein. However, the leg of the naked neck chicken had lower crude fat(P<0.01) and higher crude protein(P<0.01) than that in the normal feather chicken.
In conclusion, naked neck gene reduced the weight of headneck and the feather, which have low economical value, but increased the leg, which has higher economical value and fit for needs of domestic market. And with lower fat content in the leg of naked neck chicken was also match with the demand of low-caloried healthy diet in modern society. Moreover, the more crude protein found in the leg suggests the naked neck chicken has higher nutrition value. Therefore, the results of carcass and chemical traits indicated the naked neck chicken has better meat quality.
目次

壹、中文摘要..................................iv
貳、Abstract...................................v
參、前言.......................................1
肆、文獻檢討...................................2
一、裸頸基因介紹..............................2
(一).遺傳....................................2
(二).外觀描述................................2
(三).對生產性能的影響........................6
(四).對繁殖性狀的影響........................7
(五).對屠體性狀的影響........................7
(六).對死亡率的影響..........................8
(七).對行為表現的影響........................9
二、肉質的定義...............................10
(一).什麼是肉質.............................10
(二).選拔品系對雞肉肉質的影響...............13
三、雞肉肉質測量方法.........................14
(一).保水力分析.............................14
(二).官能品評分析...........................15
(三).物性分析...............................16
(四).肉色測量...............................17
(五).pH值分析...............................18
(六).一般化學組成分析.......................19
伍、材料與方法................................21
一、試驗材料.................................21
二、環境溫度變化.............................22
三、飼養管理.................................25
(一).飼養條件...............................25
(二).飼料配方...............................26
(三).防疫計畫...............................26
四、測量項目與方法...........................29
(一).屠宰特性...............................29
(二).屠體及雞隻副產物特性...................29
(三).肌肉pH值...............................30
(四).肌肉色澤變化...........................31
(五).肉汁流失率及蒸煮失重...................31
(六).胸、腿肉組織物性分析(硬度).............31
(七).深胸肉面積之比例.......................32
(八).一般化學組成...........................33
1.水分.....................................33
2.粗脂肪...................................33
3.粗蛋白質.................................33
五、統計分析.................................35
陸、結果與討論................................38
一、裸頸基因對屠體性狀的影響.................38
(一).活體重與屠宰率、血重比例與羽毛重比例...38
(二).屠體各部位佔活體重百分比...............39
(三).心臟、肝臟、砂囊、腹脂佔活體重百分比...41
二、裸頸基因對雞肉物理性狀的影響.............47
(一).色度...................................47
(二).肉汁流失率與蒸煮失重...................48
(三).組織物性...............................49
(四).小胸肌面積.............................49
三、裸頸基因對雞肉化學性狀的影響.............57
(一).pH值...................................57
(二).一般化學組成...........................58
柒、結論......................................64
捌、參考文獻..................................65
玖、附錄......................................74

表次

表1、帶有裸頸基因之雞隻位於地理上分佈之資料................5
表2、試驗動物帶有裸頸基因之數量與帶有矮小基因雞隻之數量...23
表3、飼養期間環境溫溼度變化...............................23
表4、飼糧組成(0-10週齡)...................................27
表5、飼糧組成(11-18週齡)..................................28
表6、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠體、血液與羽毛重佔活體重百分比經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差....................43
表7、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡頭頸、背、胸重佔活體重百分比經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差........................44
表8、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡翅膀、腿、腳重佔活體重百分比經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差........................45
表9、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡心、肝、砂囊、腹脂重佔活體重百分比經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差..................46
表10、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第1、3、6天胸肉L*值經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差............................50
表11、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第1、3、6天胸肉a*值經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差............................51
表12、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第1、3、6天胸肉b*值經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差............................52
表13、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第3,6天胸腿肉肉汁流失率經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差........................53
表14、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第6天胸、腿肉蒸煮失重經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差..........................54
表15、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後第6天胸、腿肉組織物性經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差..........................55
表16、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後小胸肌面積所佔胸肌面積百分比經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差....................56
表17、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後15分鐘、1、24小時胸肉pH值經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差......................60
表18、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後15分鐘、1、24小時腿肉pH值經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差......................61
表19、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後胸肉一般化學組成經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差................................62
表20、正常羽雞及裸頸雞18週齡屠後腿肉一般化學組成經變方分析所得之均方及平均值與標準偏差................................63
表21、北京油雞裸頸與正常羽子代各種外觀狀況分佈(%)之比較...77

圖次

圖 1、裸頸雞隻所減少之羽毛生成區域的比較。上方為背面觀;下方為腹面觀;左方為正常雞隻;右方為裸頸雞隻...................4
圖 2、食品供應鏈..........................................11
圖 3、物理性分析中壓入二次的測定方式在肌肉餅樣品測定所得之典型壓縮曲線................................................17
圖 4、試驗期間溫濕度變化..................................24
圖 5、物性測定儀..........................................32
圖 6、雞之肌肉組織腹面圖..................................36
圖 7、使用image pro plus 4.0軟體圈選胸肉前................37
圖 8、使用image pro plus 4.0軟體圈選胸肉後................37
圖 9、裸頸北京油雞面部圖..................................76
圖 10、正常羽北京油雞面部圖...............................76
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