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研究生:徐力行
研究生(外文):Lih-Shyng Shyu
論文名稱:尾流效應對低速風洞高攻角測試影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of the Model Wake Blockage Effects at High Angles of Attack in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel
指導教授:莊書豪莊書豪引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:低速風洞尾流阻塞高攻角
外文關鍵詞:low speed wind tunnelwake blockagehigh angle of attack
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近代戰機的設計朝向高攻角飛行時仍具有優異的操控性能。當戰機於高攻角飛行姿態下,其流場變得很複雜,氣動力特性呈現非線性化,包括不穩定邊界層流場,不對稱渦流生成,渦流崩散等,造成飛機失速或螺旋情況。
本文以試驗探討風洞模型尾流阻塞之影響,對於高攻角姿態下的試驗模型所測試之數據,需執行修正以獲得正確之氣動力係數。本文利用2.2 × 3.1公尺低速風洞之模型阻力及風洞壁壓力數據分析探討尾流阻塞效應,測試過程以不同大小的圓形平板來模擬試驗模型之高攻角狀態。數據分析結果將以一簡單的方程式來修正模型尾流的阻塞效應,為了驗證此一修正方程式,則以NASA TP-1803模型執行測力試驗,結果驗證修正後之數據二者相吻合。
未來建議將以此NASA TP-1803模型作為一標準模型,對本風洞於年度裝備校驗/維修後其試驗數據之驗證比對。
Excellent maneuverability at high angle of attack flight is important objectives in the future fighter design. When a jet fighter operates at high angles of attack the resulting aerodynamics can be highly nonlinear because of the complicated flow field around the configuration, including unsteady boundary layer, vortex generating, translating, developing / bursting, post stall departures, spin and so on, in addition to their mutual interaction.
To improve the fidelity of measured aerodynamic characteristics at high angle of attack for modern jet fighters, the model wake blockage effect is examined in this paper. The wake blockage effect in the 2.2×3.1 meters low speed wind tunnel is investigated experimentally by analyzing the drag and wall pressure measurements. Circular flat plates in different sizes are used to simulate a test model at high angles of attack. The present analysis results in simple formulas for the corrections of model wake blockage effect. To verify the present correction formula, the NASA TP-1803 model is force-tested in the tunnel. The present corrected test data agree very well with the NASA TP data.
It is suggested to use NASA TP-1803 as the standard model to confirm the correction of test data in the tunnel annual instrumental calibration and maintenance.
Table of contents
Acknowledgement
Abstract---------------------------------------------------I
Table of contents----------------------------------------III
List of figures------------------------------------------VII
List of tables--------------------------------------------IX
Nomenclature-----------------------------------------------X
1. Introduction--------------------------------------------1
1.1 Research orientation ----------------------------------1
1.2 Review of research-------------------------------------3
1.3 Purpose of research------------------------------------5
2. Experimental Theory-------------------------------------7
2.1 Solid blockage ----------------------------------------9
2.2 Wake blockage ----------------------------------------10
2.3 Total blockage ---------------------------------------12
2.3.1 Attached flow --------------------------------------13
2.3.2 Fully-separated flow -------------------------------14
2.3.3 Partially-separated flow ---------------------------14
3. Experimental Arrangement-------------------------------16
3.1 Wind tunnel testing equipment-------------------------16
3.1.1 Wind tunnel-----------------------------------------16
3.1.2 Data acquisition system-----------------------------18
3.1.3 Model support system--------------------------------20
3.1.3.1 26 deg. offset sting------------------------------21
3.1.3.2 40 deg. bend sting--------------------------------21
3.1.4 The pressure plate----------------------------------21
3.1.5 Internal balance -----------------------------------23
3.1.6 Pressure transducer --------------------------------23
3.2 Test models ------------------------------------------24
3.2.1 Flat plate models-----------------------------------24
3.2.2 NASA TP-1803 model ---------------------------------24
4. Testing methodology------------------------------------26
4.1 Instruments calibration-------------------------------26
4.1.1 Balance calibration --------------------------------27
4.1.2 Pressure transducer calibration---------------------27
4.1.3 Support system potentiometer calibration------------28
4.1.4 Sting deflection calibration------------------------29
4.1.5 Tare run and dry run--------------------------------29
4.2 Wind Tunnel Test Section Calibration------------------30
4.2.1 Speed setting of the test section ------------------30
4.2.2 Flow uniformity-------------------------------------31
4.2.3 Flow angularity-------------------------------------31
4.2.4 Turbulence intensity -------------------------------32
4.2.5 Wall boundary layer thickness ----------------------33
4.3 Testing methods --------------------------------------33
4.3.1 Drag analysis method--------------------------------33
4.3.2 Wall pressure analysis method ----------------------35
4.3.3 NASA TP-1803 model testing--------------------------37
4.3.4 Test conditions-------------------------------------39
5. Results and discussion---------------------------------41
5.1 Balance Accuracy--------------------------------------41
5.2 Test to test comparisons------------------------------42
5.3 Data repeatability------------------------------------43
5.4 Drag analysis-----------------------------------------45
5.5 Wall pressure analysis--------------------------------47
5.6 Comparison analysis-----------------------------------49
5.7 NASA TP model force testing---------------------------51
6. Conclusions--------------------------------------------54
Refernce---------------------------------------------------56
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